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The union of all files from all check-ins in directory wiki_references/2017/software/simulators/p2psim/src/third_party/libgmp_v_4_1_2/gmp-4.1.2/mpn/ia64   [history]

Copyright 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This file is part of the GNU MP Library.

The GNU MP Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your
option) any later version.

The GNU MP Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public
License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
along with the GNU MP Library; see the file COPYING.LIB.  If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
02111-1307, USA.

The IA-64 ISA keeps instructions three and three in 128 bit bundles.
Programmers/compilers need to put explicit breaks `;;' when there are
WAW or RAW dependencies.  Such breaks can typically just be at the end
of a bundle, with some exceptions.

The Itanium and Itanium 2 implementations can under ideal conditions
execute two bundles per cycle.  The Itanium 2 allows 4 of these
instructions to do integer operations, while the Itanium 2 allows all
6 to be integer operations.

Taken cloop branches seem to insert a bubble into the pipeline most of
the time.

Loads to the fp registers bypass the L1 cache and thus get extremely
long latencies, 9 cycles on the Itanium and 7 cycles on the Itanium 2.

The software pipeline stuff using br.ctop instruction causes delays,
since many issue slots are taken up by instructions with zero
predicates, and since about many extra instructions are needed to set
things up.  These features are designed for code density, not maximum

Misc pipeline limitations (Itanium):
* The getf.sig instruction can only execute in M0.
* At most four integer instructions/cycle.
* Nops take up resources like any plain instructions.

mpn_add_n, mpn_sub_n:

The current code runs at 3 cycles/limb.  Unrolling could clearly bring
down the time to 2 cycles/limb.


The current code runs at 3.7 cycles/limb, but that somewhat odd timing
is reached only for huge operands.  It uses the mod-scheduled software
pipelining feature.  The reason for the poor speed for small operands
is that mod-scheduled loops have a very long start-up overhead.

For optimal speed, we need to load two 64-bit limbs with the ldfp8
instruction, and stay away from mod-scheduled loops.  Since rp and up
might be mutually aligned in two ways, we will need two loop variants,
with the same basic structure:

  { .mfi	getf.sig
	   (p6)	cmp.leu		p6, p7 =
} { .mfi	stf8
	   (p7)	cmp.ltu		p6, p7 =
} { .mib	getf.sig
	   (p6)	add 1
} { .mib	ldfp8		 = [up], 16
	   (p7)	add
  { .mfi	getf.sig
	   (p6)	cmp.leu		p6, p7 =
} { .mfi	stf8
	   (p7)	cmp.ltu		p6, p7 =
} { .mib	getf.sig
	   (p6)	add 1
} { .mib	ldfp8		 = [rp], 16
	   (p7)	add

2 limbs/20 instructions
	   20 insn/max 6 insn/cycle:		3.3 cycles/2limb
	   8 memops/max 2 memops/cycle:		4.0 cycles/2limb
	   8 intops/max 2 intops/cycle:		4.0 cycles/2limb
	   4 fpops/max 2 fpops/cycle:		2.0 cycles/2limb


The current code just calls mpn_mul_1 and mpn_sub_n and thus needs
about 7 cycles/limb.

We could implement this much like mpn_addmul_1, if we first complement
v.  When v is complemented, the low product limb becomes complement of
true product.  This should allow us to use the accumulation of xma.
Here is how it works:

  #define umul_ppmma(ph, pl, m0, m1, a) \
    do {								\
      UDItype __m0 = (m0), __m1 = (m1), __a = (a);			\
      __asm__ (" %0 = %1, %2, %3"					\
	       : "=f" (ph)						\
	       : "f" (m0), "f" (m1), "f" (__a));			\
      (pl) = __m0 * __m1 + __a;						\
    } while (0)

  mpn_submul_1 (mp_ptr rp, mp_srcptr up, mp_size_t n, mp_limb_t vl)
    mp_limb_t cl, cy;
    mp_size_t i;
    mp_limb_t phi, plo;
    mp_limb_t x;
    mp_limb_t ul, vln;

    vln = -vl;

    cl = 0;
    for (i = n; i != 0; i--)
	ul = *up++;		/* will need this in both fregs and gregs */
	x = *rp;
	umul_ppmma (phi, plo, ul, vln, x);

	cy = plo < cl;
	plo -= cl;

	cl = ul - phi;
	cl += cy;

	*rp++ = plo;

    return cl;


The current code runs at 3.7 cycles/limb.  The code is very similar to
the mpn_addmul_1 code.  See comments above.

Faster code wouldn't be too hard to write.  This is one possible

  { .mfi	getf.sig
	   (p6) cmp.leu		p6, p7 =
} { .mfi	stf8
	   (p7) cmp.ltu		p6, p7 =
} { .mib	getf.sig
	   (p6) add 1
} { .mib	ldf8		 = [up], 8
	   (p7) add

1 limb/12 instructions
	   12 insn/max 6 insn/cycle:		2.0 cycles/limb
	   4 memops/max 2 memops/cycle:		2.0 cycles/limb
	   4 intops/max 2 intops/cycle:		2.0 cycles/limb
	   2 fpops/max 2 fpops/cycle:		1.0 cycles/limb


The add+cmp+add we use on the other codes is optimal for shortening
recurrencies (2 cycles) but the sequence takes up 4 execution slots.  When
recurrency depth is not critical, a more standard 3-cycle add+cmp+add is

/* First load the 8 values from v */
	ldfp8		v0, v1 = [r35], 16;;
	ldfp8		v2, v3 = [r35], 16;;
	ldfp8		v4, v5 = [r35], 16;;
	ldfp8		v6, v7 = [r35], 16;;

/* In the inner loop, get a new U limb and store a result limb. */
	mov		lc = un
Loop:	ldf8		u0 = [r33], 8
	xma.l		lp0 = v0, u0, hp0		hp0 = v0, u0, hp0
	xma.l		lp1 = v1, u0, hp1		hp1 = v1, u0, hp1
	xma.l		lp2 = v2, u0, hp2		hp2 = v2, u0, hp2
	xma.l		lp3 = v3, u0, hp3		hp3 = v3, u0, hp3
	xma.l		lp4 = v4, u0, hp4		hp4 = v4, u0, hp4
	xma.l		lp5 = v5, u0, hp5		hp5 = v5, u0, hp5
	xma.l		lp6 = v6, u0, hp6		hp6 = v6, u0, hp6
	xma.l		lp7 = v7, u0, hp7		hp7 = v7, u0, hp7
	getf.sig	l0 = lp0
	getf.sig	l1 = lp1
	getf.sig	l2 = lp2
	getf.sig	l3 = lp3
	getf.sig	l4 = lp4
	getf.sig	l5 = lp5
	getf.sig	l6 = lp6
	getf.sig	l7 = lp7
	add+cmp+add	l0, l0, h0
	add+cmp+add	l1, l1, h1
	add+cmp+add	l2, l2, h2
	add+cmp+add	l3, l3, h3
	add+cmp+add	l4, l4, h4
	add+cmp+add	l5, l5, h5
	add+cmp+add	l6, l6, h6
	add+cmp+add	l7, l7, h7
	st8		[r32] = xx, 8
	br.cloop Loop

	50 insn at max 6 insn/cycle:		8.33 cycles/limb8
	10 memops at max 2 memops/cycle:	5 cycles/limb8
	16 fpops at max 2 fpops/cycle:		8 cycles/limb8
	24 intops at max 4 intops/cycle:	6 cycles/limb8
	10+24 memops+intops at max 4/cycle	8.5 cycles/limb8
						1.0625 cycles/limb

mpn_lshift, mpn_rshift

The current code runs at 2 cycles/limb, but has a too deep software
pipeline.  The code suffers badly from the 4 cycle latency of the
variable shift instructions.

Using 63 separate loops, we could use the double-word SHRP
instruction.  That instruction has a plain single-cycle latency.  We
need 63 loops since this instruction only accept immediate count.