Artifact Content
Not logged in

Artifact 9de181ba1dc1a783c3437ca2ee5deab02a84cad3:

Attachment "2002_xx_xx_TopologicallyAware_Overlay_Construction_and_Server_Selection_by_Sylvia_Ratnasamy_and_Mark_Handley_and_Richard_Karp_and_Scott_Shenker.ps" to wiki page [Attic 001 for Holding Various Files] added by martin_vahi on 2018-01-20 13:23:50.
%!PS-Adobe-2.0
%%Creator: dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software
%%Title: infocom.dvi
%%Pages: 10
%%PageOrder: Ascend
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 612 792
%%DocumentFonts: Times-Roman Times-Italic Times-Bold
%%EndComments
%DVIPSWebPage: (www.radicaleye.com)
%DVIPSCommandLine: dvips -f infocom
%DVIPSParameters: dpi=600, compressed
%DVIPSSource:  TeX output 2002.02.06:1508
%%BeginProcSet: texc.pro
%!
/TeXDict 300 dict def TeXDict begin/N{def}def/B{bind def}N/S{exch}N/X{S
N}B/A{dup}B/TR{translate}N/isls false N/vsize 11 72 mul N/hsize 8.5 72
mul N/landplus90{false}def/@rigin{isls{[0 landplus90{1 -1}{-1 1}ifelse 0
0 0]concat}if 72 Resolution div 72 VResolution div neg scale isls{
landplus90{VResolution 72 div vsize mul 0 exch}{Resolution -72 div hsize
mul 0}ifelse TR}if Resolution VResolution vsize -72 div 1 add mul TR[
matrix currentmatrix{A A round sub abs 0.00001 lt{round}if}forall round
exch round exch]setmatrix}N/@landscape{/isls true N}B/@manualfeed{
statusdict/manualfeed true put}B/@copies{/#copies X}B/FMat[1 0 0 -1 0 0]
N/FBB[0 0 0 0]N/nn 0 N/IEn 0 N/ctr 0 N/df-tail{/nn 8 dict N nn begin
/FontType 3 N/FontMatrix fntrx N/FontBBox FBB N string/base X array
/BitMaps X/BuildChar{CharBuilder}N/Encoding IEn N end A{/foo setfont}2
array copy cvx N load 0 nn put/ctr 0 N[}B/sf 0 N/df{/sf 1 N/fntrx FMat N
df-tail}B/dfs{div/sf X/fntrx[sf 0 0 sf neg 0 0]N df-tail}B/E{pop nn A
definefont setfont}B/Cw{Cd A length 5 sub get}B/Ch{Cd A length 4 sub get
}B/Cx{128 Cd A length 3 sub get sub}B/Cy{Cd A length 2 sub get 127 sub}
B/Cdx{Cd A length 1 sub get}B/Ci{Cd A type/stringtype ne{ctr get/ctr ctr
1 add N}if}B/id 0 N/rw 0 N/rc 0 N/gp 0 N/cp 0 N/G 0 N/CharBuilder{save 3
1 roll S A/base get 2 index get S/BitMaps get S get/Cd X pop/ctr 0 N Cdx
0 Cx Cy Ch sub Cx Cw add Cy setcachedevice Cw Ch true[1 0 0 -1 -.1 Cx
sub Cy .1 sub]/id Ci N/rw Cw 7 add 8 idiv string N/rc 0 N/gp 0 N/cp 0 N{
rc 0 ne{rc 1 sub/rc X rw}{G}ifelse}imagemask restore}B/G{{id gp get/gp
gp 1 add N A 18 mod S 18 idiv pl S get exec}loop}B/adv{cp add/cp X}B
/chg{rw cp id gp 4 index getinterval putinterval A gp add/gp X adv}B/nd{
/cp 0 N rw exit}B/lsh{rw cp 2 copy get A 0 eq{pop 1}{A 255 eq{pop 254}{
A A add 255 and S 1 and or}ifelse}ifelse put 1 adv}B/rsh{rw cp 2 copy
get A 0 eq{pop 128}{A 255 eq{pop 127}{A 2 idiv S 128 and or}ifelse}
ifelse put 1 adv}B/clr{rw cp 2 index string putinterval adv}B/set{rw cp
fillstr 0 4 index getinterval putinterval adv}B/fillstr 18 string 0 1 17
{2 copy 255 put pop}for N/pl[{adv 1 chg}{adv 1 chg nd}{1 add chg}{1 add
chg nd}{adv lsh}{adv lsh nd}{adv rsh}{adv rsh nd}{1 add adv}{/rc X nd}{
1 add set}{1 add clr}{adv 2 chg}{adv 2 chg nd}{pop nd}]A{bind pop}
forall N/D{/cc X A type/stringtype ne{]}if nn/base get cc ctr put nn
/BitMaps get S ctr S sf 1 ne{A A length 1 sub A 2 index S get sf div put
}if put/ctr ctr 1 add N}B/I{cc 1 add D}B/bop{userdict/bop-hook known{
bop-hook}if/SI save N @rigin 0 0 moveto/V matrix currentmatrix A 1 get A
mul exch 0 get A mul add .99 lt{/QV}{/RV}ifelse load def pop pop}N/eop{
SI restore userdict/eop-hook known{eop-hook}if showpage}N/@start{
userdict/start-hook known{start-hook}if pop/VResolution X/Resolution X
1000 div/DVImag X/IEn 256 array N 2 string 0 1 255{IEn S A 360 add 36 4
index cvrs cvn put}for pop 65781.76 div/vsize X 65781.76 div/hsize X}N
/p{show}N/RMat[1 0 0 -1 0 0]N/BDot 260 string N/Rx 0 N/Ry 0 N/V{}B/RV/v{
/Ry X/Rx X V}B statusdict begin/product where{pop false[(Display)(NeXT)
(LaserWriter 16/600)]{A length product length le{A length product exch 0
exch getinterval eq{pop true exit}if}{pop}ifelse}forall}{false}ifelse
end{{gsave TR -.1 .1 TR 1 1 scale Rx Ry false RMat{BDot}imagemask
grestore}}{{gsave TR -.1 .1 TR Rx Ry scale 1 1 false RMat{BDot}
imagemask grestore}}ifelse B/QV{gsave newpath transform round exch round
exch itransform moveto Rx 0 rlineto 0 Ry neg rlineto Rx neg 0 rlineto
fill grestore}B/a{moveto}B/delta 0 N/tail{A/delta X 0 rmoveto}B/M{S p
delta add tail}B/b{S p tail}B/c{-4 M}B/d{-3 M}B/e{-2 M}B/f{-1 M}B/g{0 M}
B/h{1 M}B/i{2 M}B/j{3 M}B/k{4 M}B/w{0 rmoveto}B/l{p -4 w}B/m{p -3 w}B/n{
p -2 w}B/o{p -1 w}B/q{p 1 w}B/r{p 2 w}B/s{p 3 w}B/t{p 4 w}B/x{0 S
rmoveto}B/y{3 2 roll p a}B/bos{/SS save N}B/eos{SS restore}B end

%%EndProcSet
%%BeginProcSet: 8r.enc
% @@psencodingfile@{
%   author = "S. Rahtz, P. MacKay, Alan Jeffrey, B. Horn, K. Berry",
%   version = "0.6",
%   date = "1 July 1998",
%   filename = "8r.enc",
%   email = "tex-fonts@@tug.org",
%   docstring = "Encoding for TrueType or Type 1 fonts
%                to be used with TeX."
% @}
% 
% Idea is to have all the characters normally included in Type 1 fonts
% available for typesetting. This is effectively the characters in Adobe
% Standard Encoding + ISO Latin 1 + extra characters from Lucida.
% 
% Character code assignments were made as follows:
% 
% (1) the Windows ANSI characters are almost all in their Windows ANSI
% positions, because some Windows users cannot easily reencode the
% fonts, and it makes no difference on other systems. The only Windows
% ANSI characters not available are those that make no sense for
% typesetting -- rubout (127 decimal), nobreakspace (160), softhyphen
% (173). quotesingle and grave are moved just because it's such an
% irritation not having them in TeX positions.
% 
% (2) Remaining characters are assigned arbitrarily to the lower part
% of the range, avoiding 0, 10 and 13 in case we meet dumb software.
% 
% (3) Y&Y Lucida Bright includes some extra text characters; in the
% hopes that other PostScript fonts, perhaps created for public
% consumption, will include them, they are included starting at 0x12.
% 
% (4) Remaining positions left undefined are for use in (hopefully)
% upward-compatible revisions, if someday more characters are generally
% available.
% 
% (5) hyphen appears twice for compatibility with both 
% ASCII and Windows.
% 
/TeXBase1Encoding [
% 0x00 (encoded characters from Adobe Standard not in Windows 3.1)
  /.notdef /dotaccent /fi /fl
  /fraction /hungarumlaut /Lslash /lslash
  /ogonek /ring /.notdef
  /breve /minus /.notdef 
% These are the only two remaining unencoded characters, so may as
% well include them.
  /Zcaron /zcaron 
% 0x10
 /caron /dotlessi 
% (unusual TeX characters available in, e.g., Lucida Bright)
 /dotlessj /ff /ffi /ffl 
 /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
 /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
 % very contentious; it's so painful not having quoteleft and quoteright
 % at 96 and 145 that we move the things normally found there to here.
 /grave /quotesingle 
% 0x20 (ASCII begins)
 /space /exclam /quotedbl /numbersign
 /dollar /percent /ampersand /quoteright
 /parenleft /parenright /asterisk /plus /comma /hyphen /period /slash
% 0x30
 /zero /one /two /three /four /five /six /seven
 /eight /nine /colon /semicolon /less /equal /greater /question
% 0x40
 /at /A /B /C /D /E /F /G /H /I /J /K /L /M /N /O
% 0x50
 /P /Q /R /S /T /U /V /W
 /X /Y /Z /bracketleft /backslash /bracketright /asciicircum /underscore
% 0x60
 /quoteleft /a /b /c /d /e /f /g /h /i /j /k /l /m /n /o
% 0x70
 /p /q /r /s /t /u /v /w
 /x /y /z /braceleft /bar /braceright /asciitilde
 /.notdef % rubout; ASCII ends
% 0x80
 /.notdef /.notdef /quotesinglbase /florin
 /quotedblbase /ellipsis /dagger /daggerdbl
 /circumflex /perthousand /Scaron /guilsinglleft
 /OE /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef
% 0x90
 /.notdef /.notdef /.notdef /quotedblleft
 /quotedblright /bullet /endash /emdash
 /tilde /trademark /scaron /guilsinglright
 /oe /.notdef /.notdef /Ydieresis
% 0xA0
 /.notdef % nobreakspace
 /exclamdown /cent /sterling
 /currency /yen /brokenbar /section
 /dieresis /copyright /ordfeminine /guillemotleft
 /logicalnot
 /hyphen % Y&Y (also at 45); Windows' softhyphen
 /registered
 /macron
% 0xD0
 /degree /plusminus /twosuperior /threesuperior
 /acute /mu /paragraph /periodcentered
 /cedilla /onesuperior /ordmasculine /guillemotright
 /onequarter /onehalf /threequarters /questiondown
% 0xC0
 /Agrave /Aacute /Acircumflex /Atilde /Adieresis /Aring /AE /Ccedilla
 /Egrave /Eacute /Ecircumflex /Edieresis
 /Igrave /Iacute /Icircumflex /Idieresis
% 0xD0
 /Eth /Ntilde /Ograve /Oacute
 /Ocircumflex /Otilde /Odieresis /multiply
 /Oslash /Ugrave /Uacute /Ucircumflex
 /Udieresis /Yacute /Thorn /germandbls
% 0xE0
 /agrave /aacute /acircumflex /atilde
 /adieresis /aring /ae /ccedilla
 /egrave /eacute /ecircumflex /edieresis
 /igrave /iacute /icircumflex /idieresis
% 0xF0
 /eth /ntilde /ograve /oacute
 /ocircumflex /otilde /odieresis /divide
 /oslash /ugrave /uacute /ucircumflex
 /udieresis /yacute /thorn /ydieresis
] def

%%EndProcSet
%%BeginProcSet: texps.pro
%!
TeXDict begin/rf{findfont dup length 1 add dict begin{1 index/FID ne 2
index/UniqueID ne and{def}{pop pop}ifelse}forall[1 index 0 6 -1 roll
exec 0 exch 5 -1 roll VResolution Resolution div mul neg 0 0]/Metrics
exch def dict begin Encoding{exch dup type/integertype ne{pop pop 1 sub
dup 0 le{pop}{[}ifelse}{FontMatrix 0 get div Metrics 0 get div def}
ifelse}forall Metrics/Metrics currentdict end def[2 index currentdict
end definefont 3 -1 roll makefont/setfont cvx]cvx def}def/ObliqueSlant{
dup sin S cos div neg}B/SlantFont{4 index mul add}def/ExtendFont{3 -1
roll mul exch}def/ReEncodeFont{CharStrings rcheck{/Encoding false def
dup[exch{dup CharStrings exch known not{pop/.notdef/Encoding true def}
if}forall Encoding{]exch pop}{cleartomark}ifelse}if/Encoding exch def}
def end

%%EndProcSet
%%BeginProcSet: special.pro
%!
TeXDict begin/SDict 200 dict N SDict begin/@SpecialDefaults{/hs 612 N
/vs 792 N/ho 0 N/vo 0 N/hsc 1 N/vsc 1 N/ang 0 N/CLIP 0 N/rwiSeen false N
/rhiSeen false N/letter{}N/note{}N/a4{}N/legal{}N}B/@scaleunit 100 N
/@hscale{@scaleunit div/hsc X}B/@vscale{@scaleunit div/vsc X}B/@hsize{
/hs X/CLIP 1 N}B/@vsize{/vs X/CLIP 1 N}B/@clip{/CLIP 2 N}B/@hoffset{/ho
X}B/@voffset{/vo X}B/@angle{/ang X}B/@rwi{10 div/rwi X/rwiSeen true N}B
/@rhi{10 div/rhi X/rhiSeen true N}B/@llx{/llx X}B/@lly{/lly X}B/@urx{
/urx X}B/@ury{/ury X}B/magscale true def end/@MacSetUp{userdict/md known
{userdict/md get type/dicttype eq{userdict begin md length 10 add md
maxlength ge{/md md dup length 20 add dict copy def}if end md begin
/letter{}N/note{}N/legal{}N/od{txpose 1 0 mtx defaultmatrix dtransform S
atan/pa X newpath clippath mark{transform{itransform moveto}}{transform{
itransform lineto}}{6 -2 roll transform 6 -2 roll transform 6 -2 roll
transform{itransform 6 2 roll itransform 6 2 roll itransform 6 2 roll
curveto}}{{closepath}}pathforall newpath counttomark array astore/gc xdf
pop ct 39 0 put 10 fz 0 fs 2 F/|______Courier fnt invertflag{PaintBlack}
if}N/txpose{pxs pys scale ppr aload pop por{noflips{pop S neg S TR pop 1
-1 scale}if xflip yflip and{pop S neg S TR 180 rotate 1 -1 scale ppr 3
get ppr 1 get neg sub neg ppr 2 get ppr 0 get neg sub neg TR}if xflip
yflip not and{pop S neg S TR pop 180 rotate ppr 3 get ppr 1 get neg sub
neg 0 TR}if yflip xflip not and{ppr 1 get neg ppr 0 get neg TR}if}{
noflips{TR pop pop 270 rotate 1 -1 scale}if xflip yflip and{TR pop pop
90 rotate 1 -1 scale ppr 3 get ppr 1 get neg sub neg ppr 2 get ppr 0 get
neg sub neg TR}if xflip yflip not and{TR pop pop 90 rotate ppr 3 get ppr
1 get neg sub neg 0 TR}if yflip xflip not and{TR pop pop 270 rotate ppr
2 get ppr 0 get neg sub neg 0 S TR}if}ifelse scaleby96{ppr aload pop 4
-1 roll add 2 div 3 1 roll add 2 div 2 copy TR .96 dup scale neg S neg S
TR}if}N/cp{pop pop showpage pm restore}N end}if}if}N/normalscale{
Resolution 72 div VResolution 72 div neg scale magscale{DVImag dup scale
}if 0 setgray}N/psfts{S 65781.76 div N}N/startTexFig{/psf$SavedState
save N userdict maxlength dict begin/magscale true def normalscale
currentpoint TR/psf$ury psfts/psf$urx psfts/psf$lly psfts/psf$llx psfts
/psf$y psfts/psf$x psfts currentpoint/psf$cy X/psf$cx X/psf$sx psf$x
psf$urx psf$llx sub div N/psf$sy psf$y psf$ury psf$lly sub div N psf$sx
psf$sy scale psf$cx psf$sx div psf$llx sub psf$cy psf$sy div psf$ury sub
TR/showpage{}N/erasepage{}N/copypage{}N/p 3 def @MacSetUp}N/doclip{
psf$llx psf$lly psf$urx psf$ury currentpoint 6 2 roll newpath 4 copy 4 2
roll moveto 6 -1 roll S lineto S lineto S lineto closepath clip newpath
moveto}N/endTexFig{end psf$SavedState restore}N/@beginspecial{SDict
begin/SpecialSave save N gsave normalscale currentpoint TR
@SpecialDefaults count/ocount X/dcount countdictstack N}N/@setspecial{
CLIP 1 eq{newpath 0 0 moveto hs 0 rlineto 0 vs rlineto hs neg 0 rlineto
closepath clip}if ho vo TR hsc vsc scale ang rotate rwiSeen{rwi urx llx
sub div rhiSeen{rhi ury lly sub div}{dup}ifelse scale llx neg lly neg TR
}{rhiSeen{rhi ury lly sub div dup scale llx neg lly neg TR}if}ifelse
CLIP 2 eq{newpath llx lly moveto urx lly lineto urx ury lineto llx ury
lineto closepath clip}if/showpage{}N/erasepage{}N/copypage{}N newpath}N
/@endspecial{count ocount sub{pop}repeat countdictstack dcount sub{end}
repeat grestore SpecialSave restore end}N/@defspecial{SDict begin}N
/@fedspecial{end}B/li{lineto}B/rl{rlineto}B/rc{rcurveto}B/np{/SaveX
currentpoint/SaveY X N 1 setlinecap newpath}N/st{stroke SaveX SaveY
moveto}N/fil{fill SaveX SaveY moveto}N/ellipse{/endangle X/startangle X
/yrad X/xrad X/savematrix matrix currentmatrix N TR xrad yrad scale 0 0
1 startangle endangle arc savematrix setmatrix}N end

%%EndProcSet
TeXDict begin 40258431 52099146 1000 600 600 (infocom.dvi)
@start
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fa cmex10 10 1
/Fa 1 13 df<126012F0B3B3B01260043674811C>12 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fb cmsy10 10 3
/Fb 3 107 df<007FB81280B912C0A26C17803204799641>0 D<0060150600F0150F6C15
1F007C153E6C157C6C15F86C6CEB01F06C6CEB03E06C6CEB07C06C6CEB0F806C6CEB1F00
017C133E6D5B6D5B90380F81F0903807C3E0903803E7C06DB45A6D90C7FC147EA214FF49
7F903803E7C0903807C3E090380F81F049C67E013E137C497F497F4848EB0F804848EB07
C04848EB03E04848EB01F048C812F8003E157C48153E48151F48150F00601506282874A8
41>2 D<126012F0B3B3B3B3A91260045377BD17>106 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fc cmmi7 7 8
/Fc 8 113 df<EC01801403A2EC0700A2140EA35CA25CA35CA35CA2495AA3495AA249C7
FCA3130EA25BA35BA25BA35BA2485AA3485AA248C8FCA3120EA35AA25AA35AA25AA25A19
3B7CAB22>61 D<EB0FC0EB3FE09038F873803801E03F3807C01FEB800FEA0F005A48EB1F
00123E127EA248133EA4485B1518A3ECF83012781301393C077860391E1E7CC0380FF83F
3903E00F001D1B7D9924>97 D<EA01E0EA3FF05B1203A3485AA4485AA4381F0F80EB3FE0
EBF0F0EBC078EA3F80EB007C123EA248137EA44813FCA438F001F8A214F0EB03E0A2EB07
C00070138038780F00EA3C3EEA1FF8EA07E017297CA71D>I<1578EC0FFC15F81400A3EC
01F0A4EC03E0A490380FC7C0EB3FE7EBF8773801E03F3907C01F80EB800FEA0F005A48EB
1F00123E127EA248133EA4485B1518A3ECF83012781301393C077860391E1E7CC0380FF8
3F3903E00F001E297DA723>100 D<EB07E0EB3FF8EBF81C3801E00EEA07C0EA0F80EA1F
00A248131C007E1338EB03F0387FFFC038FFFE0000FCC7FCA45AA2140200781306007C13
0C003C13186C1370380F03E03807FF803801FC00171B7D991F>I<130E131F5BA2133E13
1C90C7FCA7EA03E0487EEA0C78EA187C1230A212605B12C0A2EA01F0A3485AA2485AA2EB
C180EA0F81A2381F0300A213066C5A131CEA07F06C5A11287DA617>105
D<3B07801FC007E03B0FE07FF01FF83B18F0E0F8783C3B30F1807CE03E903AFB007D801E
D860FEEB3F005B49133E00C14A133E5B1201A24848495BA35F4848485A1830EE01F0A23C
0F8003E003E060A218C0933801E180271F0007C013E3933800FF00000E6D48137C341B7D
993B>109 D<9038F007E03901FC1FF039031E387C0006EBE03E90381FC01E000CEB801F
1400A2D8183E1480A212001600495BA3153E49137EA2157C5D485A6D485A4A5A6D485A26
03EE0FC7FCEBE7FEEBE1F001E0C8FC485AA4485AA3EAFFF8A22125809922>112
D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fd cmsy7 7 1
/Fd 1 16 df<137F3801FFC0000713F0487F487F487FA2487FA2B61280A76C1400A26C5B
A26C5B6C5B6C5B000113C06C6CC7FC19197C9A22>15 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fe cmsy6 6 1
/Fe 1 1 df<B712C0A322037A8D30>0 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Ff cmmi6 6 4
/Ff 4 110 df<131FEBFF8C3801E0DE3803807E3807007C48133C121E123E003C5B127C
A3485BA215401560903801E0C012781303393807E180391C1CF300380FF87F3807E03C1B
177E9522>97 D<1338137CA2137813701300A7EA0780EA1FC0EA38E01230EA60F0EAC1E0
A3EA03C0A3EA0780A2EA0F0013041306EA1E0CA21318121CEA1E70EA0FE0EA07800F237D
A116>105 D<1418143C147CA214381400A7EB0780EB1FE01338EB60F013C0A2EA0180A2
380001E0A4EB03C0A4EB0780A4EB0F00A4131EA21238EA783CEAF8381378EA70F0EA7FC0
001FC7FC162D81A119>I<000F017E13FC3A1F81FF83FF3B31C383C707803A61EE03CC03
9026EC01F813C0D8C1F813F013F001E013E00003903903C0078013C0A2EE0F0039078007
80A2EE1E041706270F000F00130C163C1718A2001E011EEB1C70EE1FE0000C010CEB0780
2F177D9536>109 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fg cmsy8 8 3
/Fg 3 104 df<B812C0A32A037A9137>0 D<141F14FFEB03F0EB07C0EB0F80EB1F00131E
133EB3A35BA25BEA03E0EA7FC048C7FCEA7FC0EA03E0EA00F8137CA27FB3A3131E131FEB
0F80EB07C0EB03F0EB00FF141F18437BB123>102 D<127CB47EEA0FE0EA01F06C7E137C
A27FB3A37FA2EB0F80EB07E0EB01FEEB007FEB01FEEB07E0EB0F80EB1F00A2133EB3A35B
A25B485AEA0FE0EAFF80007CC7FC18437BB123>I E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fh cmr8 8 6
/Fh 6 62 df<13031307130C131C1338137013E0A2EA01C0EA0380A2EA0700A25A120E12
1EA2121C123CA35AA512F8A25AAB7EA21278A57EA3121C121EA2120E120F7EA2EA0380A2
EA01C0EA00E0A213701338131C130C1307130310437AB11B>40 D<7E7E126012707E7E7E
A27EEA0380A2EA01C0A213E0120013F0A213701378A3133CA5133EA2131EAB133EA2133C
A51378A3137013F0A213E0120113C0A2EA0380A2EA0700120EA25A5A5A12605A5A0F437B
B11B>I<EC0380B3A4B812FCA3C7D80380C7FCB3A42E2F7CA737>43
D<EB3FC0EBFFF03803E07C48487E48487E497E001EEB0780A2003E14C0A248EB03E0A500
FC14F0B0007C14E0A3007E1307003E14C0A36CEB0F806C14006D5A3807C03E3803F0FC38
00FFF0EB3FC01C2D7DAB23>48 D<130E131E137EEA01FE12FFA2EAFE7E1200B3AF13FF00
7F13FFA3182C7BAB23>I<B812FCA27ECBFCAD007FB712FCB8FCA22E137C9937>61
D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fi cmmi8 8 22
/Fi 22 122 df<123C127E12FFA4127E123C08087A8714>58 D<123C127EB4FCA21380A2
127F123D1201A3EA0300A31206A25AA25A5A122009157A8714>I<17C01603EE0F80EE3F
0016FCED03F0ED0FC0033FC7FC15FCEC03F0EC0FC0023FC8FC14FCEB03F0EB0FC0013FC9
FC13FCEA03F0EA0FC0003FCAFC12FC12F012FC123FEA0FC0EA03F0EA00FC133FEB0FC0EB
03F0EB00FC143FEC0FC0EC03F0EC00FC153FED0FC0ED03F0ED00FC163FEE0FC016031601
2A2B7AA537>I<1670A216F01501A24B7EA21507150DA2151915391531ED61FC156015C0
EC0180A2EC03005C14064A7F167E5C5CA25C14E05C49B6FCA25B0106C7123FA25B131C13
18491580161F5B5BA21203000F153FD8FFF8903803FFFE6D5B496D13FC2F2F7DAE35>65
D<90381FFFFE5B6D5BD900FEC8FC5CA3495AA4495AA4495AA4495AA4495AA449C8128016
01A2EE0300137E5E1606160E49140C161C163C5E484814F81503ED1FF0B7FC5EA2292D7D
AC30>76 D<EB07E0EB1FF090383C18C09038F80DE03801E0071203EA07C0380F8003EC07
C0EA1F00A25A003EEB0F80127EA348EB1F00A31502EC3E065AA30078EB7C0C007C13FC39
3C01BC18381C033C390E0E1E303907FC0FE03903F003C01F1F7D9D25>97
D<EB01F8EB0FFEEB3E0790387801809038F007C03801E00F3803C01F1207D80F80138000
1F1400EB000E4890C7FC123E127EA35AA61540007C14C0EC0180003CEB0300003E130600
1E131C380F01F83803FFE0C648C7FC1A1F7D9D1F>99 D<151FEC03FFA3EC003EA4157CA4
15F8A4903807E1F0EB1FF1EB3C19EBF80D3901E007E01203EA07C0380F8003EC07C0EA1F
00A25A003EEB0F80127EA348EB1F00A31502EC3E065AA30078EB7C0C007C13FC393C01BC
18381C033C390E0E1E303907FC0FE03903F003C0202F7DAD24>I<EB03F8EB0FFEEB3E07
9038F803803901F001C0EA03E0EA07C0EA0F80EC0380EA1F0048EB0700141E387E01FC38
7FFFF091C7FC007EC8FC127C12FCA4127C154015C0003CEB0180EC03006C1306000E131C
380781F83803FFE0C648C7FC1A1F7D9D21>I<131FEA03FFA3EA003EA45BA45BA43801F0
3FECFFC09038F3C1E09038F700F0D803EC7F13F85B5B12075BA34848485AA34A5AEA1F00
A24A5A1640003E15C0EC0F80A2ED818048EB1F01ED0300140F150648EB071CEC03F80070
EB01E0222F7DAD29>104 D<1307EB0F80EB1FC0A21480A2EB0E0090C7FCA8EA01E0EA07
F8EA0E3C1218EA303EA21260A2485AA3C65AA2485AA3485AA2485A144014C0EA0F80A2EB
8180EA1F01EB0300120F13066C5AEA03F86C5A122E7EAC18>I<15E0EC03F0A21407A2EC
03E0EC01C091C7FCA8147CEB01FEEB078F90380E0780131815C013301360EC0F8013C0A2
1300EC1F00A4143EA45CA45CA4495AA4495AA3383807C0127C38FE0F8091C7FCEAFC1E5B
EA70F8EA3FF0EA1F801C3B81AC1D>I<137CEA0FFCA3EA00F8A4EA01F0A4EA03E0A4EA07
C0A4EA0F80A4EA1F00A4123EA45AA31308EAF818A4EAF030A21360A2EA78C0EA3F80EA0F
000E2F7DAD15>108 D<27078007F0137E3C0FE01FFC01FF803C18F0381E0783C03C3078
E00F0E01E0D979C001987F26607F0013B016E0017E14C0485A16805B120048484948485A
A34D5A4848133EA24D5A19804848491481EF1F01A2F00300484849133E1806171E604848
4848EB0E18EF07F0000E6D486D5A391F7E9D3E>I<3907C007E0390FE01FF83918F0783C
393078E01E903879801F38607F00137E137CEAC0FC5BA212004848133EA35D485AA25D16
0848481418EC01F0A21630390F8003E01660140116C048C7EAE180ED7F00000E143E251F
7E9D2B>I<EB01F8EB0FFF90383F078090387C03C09038F001E0D801E013F0EA03C00007
1300484813F8121F90C7FC481301123E127EA348EB03F0A3EC07E0A215C0EC0F80007C14
005C003C133E003E5B001E13F0380F83E03803FF80D800FCC7FC1D1F7D9D22>I<3807C0
1F390FE07F80391870E0C039307983E0EB7B0738607E0F137C15C0EAC0F8EC070091C7FC
1200485AA4485AA4485AA4485AA448C8FCA2120E1B1F7E9D20>114
D<EB07E0EB1FF8EB781CEBE0060001130FEBC01F0003133FA20007133E141C140013F838
03FF8014E06C13F06C13F8EB3FFC1301EB007C1218007C133C12FEA21438481378481370
00C013E0386001C038380780381FFF00EA07F8181F7C9D21>I<130E131FA3133EA45BA4
5B387FFFF8B5FC14F03801F000A4485AA4485AA4485AA31410381F0030A21460A2001E13
C0A2EB0180EB0300EA0F0EEA07FCEA01F0152B7EA919>I<EA01E0D807F8130ED80E3C13
1F1218D8303E133EA21260A248485BA3C65A5D485AA34848485AA316203A07C003E060A4
913807C0C0120391380FC1803801E01B3A00F071E30090387FE0FE90381F803C231F7E9D
29>I<D801E01370D807F813F8380E3C01001814FCEA303E14000060147C1538485AA3C6
5A1530485AA348481360A315C0485AEC0180A2EC0300120314066D5A00015B3800F070EB
7FE0EB1F801E1F7E9D22>I<EA01E0D807F8130ED80E3C131F1218D8303E133EA21260A2
4848137CA3C65A15F8485AA33903E001F0A43907C003E0A4EC07C01203140F3801E01F39
00F07F80EB7FEFEB1F8FEB000FEC1F00120E001F133E5A485B1478007E5B387C01E03830
03C0D81C0FC7FCEA0FFEEA03F0202C7E9D23>121 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fj cmr10 10 13
/Fj 13 94 df<121C127FA2EAFF80A7EA7F00AB123EAA121CAB1208C7FCA8121C123E12
7FEAFF80A3EA7F00123E121C093C79BB17>33 D<146014E0EB01C0EB0380EB0700130E5B
133C13385B13F05B1201485AA2485AA348C7FCA25A121EA2123EA2123CA2127CA5127812
F8B01278127CA5123CA2123EA2121EA2121F7EA26C7EA36C7EA26C7E12007F13707F133C
131C7F7FEB0380EB01C0EB00E01460135278BD20>40 D<7E7E7E12707E7E7E120F7E6C7E
7F12017F6C7EA21378A37FA2133E131EA2131FA27FA21480A5130714C0B01480130FA514
00A25BA2131EA2133E133CA25BA35BA2485A5B12035B48C7FC5A120E5A5A5A5A5A5A1252
7BBD20>I<15301578B3A6007FB812F8B912FCA26C17F8C80078C8FCB3A6153036367BAF
41>43 D<EB03F8EB1FFF90387E0FC09038F803E03901E000F0484813780007147C48487F
A248C77EA2481580A3007EEC0FC0A600FE15E0B3007E15C0A4007F141F6C1580A36C1500
6D5B000F143EA26C6C5B6C6C5B6C6C485A6C6C485A90387E0FC0D91FFFC7FCEB03F8233A
7DB72A>48 D<EB01C013031307131F13FFB5FCA2131F1200B3B3A8497E007FB512F0A31C
3879B72A>I<EB0FF0EB7FFE48B57E3903E03FC03907000FE0000E6D7E00186D7E00386D
7E00308048130081007C80B41580A27FA36CC7FCA2121CC81300A25D5DA24A5AA24A5A5D
4A5A4A5A5D4AC7FC143E5C5C5C495A495A49C8FC130E49EB01805B5B491303491400485A
48C7FC00065C000FB6FC5A5A485CB6FCA321387CB72A>I<0006140CD80780133C9038F0
03F890B55A5D5D5D92C7FC14FC38067FE090C9FCABEB07F8EB3FFE9038780F809038C007
C039078003E0496C7E00068000046D7EC8FC81157E157FA31680A3123E127F5A7FA290C7
FC16005A00605C5D00705C0030130100385C6C495A6C495A6C6C485A3903E03F806CB5C7
FC38007FFCEB1FE0213A7CB72A>53 D<12301238123E003FB612E0A316C0481580A21600
0070C7120600605CA25D00E05C5A5D5DC7485AA24AC7FC1406A25C141C141814385CA25C
A21301A2495AA21307A2130FA3495AA4133FA4137FA96DC8FC131E233B7BB82A>55
D<121C123E127FEAFF80A3EA7F00123E121CC7FCB2121C123E127FEAFF80A3EA7F00123E
121C092479A317>58 D<007FB812F8B912FCA26C17F8CCFCAE007FB812F8B912FCA26C17
F836167B9F41>61 D<EAFFF8A4EAF000B3B3B3B3A3EAFFF8A40D5378BD17>91
D<EAFFF8A4EA0078B3B3B3B3A3EAFFF8A40D537FBD17>93 D E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fk cmr7 7 3
/Fk 3 52 df<13381378EA01F8121F12FE12E01200B3AB487EB512F8A215267BA521>49
D<13FF000313E0380E03F0381801F8486C7E48137E00787F12FC6C1480A2141FA2127CC7
123F1500A2147EA25C5C495A495A495A49C7FC131E131C5B903860018013C0EA01803903
00030012065A001FB5FC5A485BB5FCA219267DA521>I<13FF000713E0380F01F8381C00
FC0030137E123C007E7FA35C123CC7127EA25C495A495AEB0FC048B4C7FCA2380003E0EB
00F0147C147EA2801580A21238127C12FEA21500485B0078137E0070137C6C5B381F03F0
3807FFC0C690C7FC19277DA521>I E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fl cmmi10 10 13
/Fl 13 111 df<121C123E127FEAFF80A3EA7F00123E121C0909798817>58
D<121C127E127FEAFF80A213C0127FA2121C1200A4EA0180A3EA0300A312065AA25A5A12
200A19798817>I<150C151EA2153CA31578A315F0A3EC01E0A3EC03C0A3EC0780A3EC0F
00A3141EA35CA35CA35CA3495AA3495AA2495AA349C7FCA3131EA35BA35BA35BA3485AA3
485AA3485AA348C8FCA3121EA35AA35AA35AA212601F537BBD2A>61
D<1760177017F01601A21603A21607160FA24C7EA216331673166316C3A2ED0183A2ED03
03150683150C160115181530A21560A215C014011580DA03007FA202061300140E140C5C
021FB5FC5CA20260C7FC5C83495A8349C8FC1306A25BA25B1338133001701680EA01F0D8
07F815FF267FFF80013F13FEB516FF18FE383C7DBB3E>65 D<0103B77E4916F06D16FC90
3B0007F80003FE4BEB00FFF07F80F03FC04A48141F19E0A34A5AA44A4815C0183F198018
7F4AC8130018FE4D5A4D5A02FEEC0FF0EF1FC005FFC7FC91B612FC495D02FCC7B4FCEF3F
C0EF0FE049486E7EA2717EA24948811701A349481403A449484A5AA24D5AA249484A5A4D
5A4D5A4DC7FC49C7485AEE07FC49EC3FF0007F90B612C0B8C8FC16F83B397DB83F>I<01
03B7FC18E018F8903B0007F80007FE4BEB00FFF03F80F01FC04A48140F19E0F007F01803
4A5A19F81801A24A4815FCA44AC8FCA402FE1503A4494816F81807A3494816F0180FA219
E04948151F19C0A2F03F80495AF07F00187E18FE49484A5A604D5A4D5A49484A5A4D5A05
7FC7FC17FE49C7EA03FCEE0FF049EC7FC0007F90B6C8FCB712FC16C03E397DB845>68
D<0103B512F84914FC6D14F890390007F8005DA34A5AA44A5AA44A5AA44AC7FCA414FEA4
495AA4495AA4495AA4495AA4495AA4495AA449C8FCA25BB6FCA25C26397DB824>73
D<4BB4FC031F13F09238FE01FC913903F0007EDA07C0EB1F80DA1F80EB0FC0023EC7EA07
E002FCEC03F0495A4948EC01F8495A4948EC00FC495A49C912FE49167E13FE49167F1201
485AA2485AA2120F5B001F17FFA2485AA34848ED01FEA400FFEE03FC90C9FCA2EF07F8A2
EF0FF0A218E0171F18C0EF3F806C167F180017FE4C5A6C6C5D1603001F4B5A6D4A5A000F
ED1F806C6C4AC7FC6D147E0003EC01F8D801FC495AD8007EEB0FC090263F807FC8FC9038
07FFF801001380383D7CBA3F>79 D<163FED0FFF5DA2ED007EA416FCA4ED01F8A4ED03F0
A4ED07E0147E903803FF8790380FC1C790391F006FC0133C49133F13F84848EB1F80485A
1207485AED3F00485AA2123F90C7127E5AA300FE5CA448495A160CA3913803F018A2127C
1407020F13306C131B001E013113606C13E1260783C013C03A03FF007F80D800FCEB1F00
283B7DB92B>100 D<EB03F013FF5AA2380007E0A4495AA4495AA449C8FCA4137EED07C0
ED1FF0ED383849EBE0F8913801C1FCEC030314063A01F80C07F81418ED03F091383001E0
484848C7FC5CEBF38001F7C8FCEA07FC7FEBFFE0EBE7F8380FC0FE143F6E7EA248486C7E
1630A33A3F001F8060A316C0127E91380F8180A29138078300481486007CEB03FC0038EB
00F8263B7CB92B>107 D<EB0FC0EA03FF5A7E38001F80A4EB3F00A4137EA45BA4485AA4
485AA4485AA4485AA4485AA448C7FCA4127E1303A3EAFC06A35BA212F8EA7818EA7C30EA
3C70EA1FE0EA0780123B7DB919>I<D803E0017F14FE3D07F801FFC003FF803D0C3C0781
F00F03E03D183E0E00F81C01F00218143026303F3090397C6000F84A5C006049EB7D804A
017FC7FC91C7127EA2D8C07E4A1301A31200494948495AA34E5A4848495AA24E5AA24848
495A95381F8060A34848494890383F00C0A395383E01804848495AF103001906181E4848
49C7131C000F6EEC0FF86CC7000EEC03E043267EA449>I<D803E0137F3A07F801FFC03A
0C3C0781F03A183E0E00F8141826303F30137C5C00605B5C91C7FCA2D8C07E14FCA31200
49495AA34B5A485AA24B5AA2485A92380FC030A3484890381F8060A3EE00C0485AEE0180
EE03006F5A4848140E000FEC07F86CC7EA01F02C267EA432>I E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
/Fm 134[37 1[55 37 42 23 32 32 42 42 42 42 60 23 37 1[23
42 42 23 37 42 37 42 42 12[46 42 4[55 1[46 2[28 1[60
3[55 51 51 14[42 42 2[21 28 21 2[28 28 40[{
TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}39 83.022 /Times-Italic
rf
%DVIPSBitmapFont: Fn cmr6 6 10
/Fn 10 58 df<13FF000313C0380781E0380F00F0001E137848133CA248131EA400F813
1FAD0078131EA2007C133E003C133CA26C13786C13F0380781E03803FFC0C6130018227D
A01E>48 D<137013F0120712FF12F91201B3A7487EB512E0A213217AA01E>I<EA01FC38
07FF80381C0FC0383803E0383001F0386000F85A00F013FC7E147CA2002013FCC7FC14F8
A2EB01F0EB03E014C0EB0780EB0F00131C5B5BEBE00CEA01C03803001812065A381FFFF8
5A4813F0B5FCA216217CA01E>I<13FF000713C0380F03E0381C00F014F8003E13FC147C
A2001C13FCC7FC14F8A2EB01F0EB03E0EB0FC03801FF00A2380003E0EB00F01478147C14
3E143F1220127012F8A248133E0060137E147C003813F8381F03F03807FFC0C613001822
7DA01E>I<14E01301A213031307A2130F131F133B1333136313E313C3EA01831203EA07
031206120C121C12181230127012E0B6FCA2380003E0A6EB07F0EB7FFFA218227DA11E>
I<00101330381E01F0381FFFE014C01480EBFE00EA1BF00018C7FCA513FE381BFF80381F
03C0381C01E0381800F0001013F8C71278A2147CA21220127012F8A24813784813F80060
13F0387001E01238381E07803807FF00EA01F816227CA01E>I<EB0FC0EB7FF03801F038
3803C0183807803C380F007C121E001C1338003C1300A2127C1278EB7FC038F9FFE038FB
80F038FE0038143C48131EA248131FA41278A36C131EA2001C133C001E13386C13703807
81E03801FFC038007F0018227DA01E>I<1230123C003FB5FCA214FE4813FC14F8386000
30A214604813C0EB018038000300A213065BA2131C5BA31378137013F0A41201A76C5A18
237CA11E>I<137F3803FFC0380781E0380E00F0001E1378001C133C123CA3123E003F13
78EA1FC0EBE0F0380FF9E03807FF80120114C0000713F0380F0FF8381E03FC383C01FE38
78007E141F5A140FA3140E0078131E007C131C6C1338380F81F03807FFC0C6130018227D
A01E>I<13FE3803FFC0380781E0380E0070481378003C133848133CA200F8131EA3141F
A40078133FA26C137F121C380F01DF3807FF9F3803FE1EC7FCA2143E143C001C1338003E
13781470003C13E0381801C0381C0780380FFE00EA03F818227DA01E>I
E
%EndDVIPSBitmapFont
/Fo 198[29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 48[{TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}
10 58.1154 /Times-Roman rf /Fp 105[42 1[37 37 24[37 42
42 60 42 42 23 32 28 42 42 42 42 65 23 42 23 23 42 42
28 37 42 37 42 37 3[28 1[28 1[60 60 78 60 60 51 46 55
1[46 60 60 74 51 60 1[28 60 60 46 51 60 55 55 60 1[37
1[47 1[23 23 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 23 21 28 21
2[28 28 28 1[69 1[42 1[28 29[46 46 2[{TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}80
83.022 /Times-Roman rf /Fq 107[29 29 24[29 33 33 48 33
33 18 26 22 33 33 33 33 52 18 33 18 18 33 33 22 29 33
29 33 29 3[22 1[22 41 48 1[63 48 48 41 37 44 1[37 48
48 59 41 48 26 22 48 48 37 41 48 44 44 48 5[18 18 33
33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 18 17 22 17 2[22 22 22 35[37
37 2[{TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}75 66.4176 /Times-Roman
rf /Fr 104[66 29[33 33 48 33 37 22 26 29 37 37 33 37
55 18 37 1[18 37 33 22 29 37 29 37 33 9[66 2[44 37 2[41
52 5[26 2[41 4[48 6[22 11[17 22 17 2[22 22 37[37 2[{
TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}40 66.4176 /Times-Bold
rf /Fs 134[29 29 44 29 33 18 26 26 33 33 33 33 48 18
29 18 18 33 33 18 29 33 29 33 33 9[55 41 48 37 33 41
1[41 48 44 55 37 44 1[22 48 48 41 41 48 44 1[41 3[45
1[22 22 33 33 1[33 33 1[33 33 33 33 1[17 22 3[22 22 22
3[33 31[33 3[{TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}63 66.4176
/Times-Italic rf /Ft 134[50 2[50 1[28 39 33 1[50 50 50
78 28 50 1[28 50 2[44 50 44 1[44 13[55 66 4[89 1[72 2[72
27[25 44[{TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}23 99.6264 /Times-Roman
rf /Fu 134[86 1[124 86 86 48 67 57 1[86 86 86 1[48 2[48
1[86 1[76 86 76 1[76 12[105 96 3[124 11[115 1[124 19[57
45[{TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont}23 172.188 /Times-Roman
rf end
%%EndProlog
%%BeginSetup
%%Feature: *Resolution 600dpi
TeXDict begin

%%EndSetup
%%Page: 1 1
1 0 bop 21 54 a Fu(T)-14 b(opologically-A)e(w)n(are)47
b(Ov)m(erlay)f(Construction)d(and)h(Serv)m(er)1581 237
y(Selection)634 436 y Ft(Sylvia)25 b(Ratnasamy)-6 b(,)24
b(Mark)h(Handle)o(y)-6 b(,)23 b(Richard)i(Karp,)g(Scott)g(Shenk)o(er)
-177 707 y Fs(Abstr)o(act)q Fr(\227)e(A)34 b(number)g(of)g(lar)o
(ge-scale)j(distrib)o(uted)d(Inter)o(net)h(applications)-260
783 y(could)25 b(potentially)h(bene\002t)e(fr)o(om)g(some)g(le)o(v)o
(el)i(of)e(kno)o(wledge)h(about)f(the)g(r)o(elati)o(v)o(e)-260
860 y(pr)o(oximity)i(between)e(its)g(participating)i(host)d(nodes.)40
b(F)n(or)24 b(example,)j(the)c(perf)n(or)n(-)-260 936
y(mance)c(of)e(lar)o(ge)j(o)o(v)o(erlay)g(netw)o(orks)e(could)g(be)g
(impr)o(o)o(v)o(ed)i(if)d(the)h(application-le)o(v)o(el)-260
1012 y(connecti)o(vity)i(between)f(the)e(nodes)g(in)g(these)h(netw)o
(orks)g(is)f(congruent)i(with)e(the)g(un-)-260 1089 y(derlying)j(IP-le)
o(v)o(el)h(topology)-5 b(.)26 b(Similarly)l(,)c(in)c(the)h(case)g(of)g
(r)o(eplicated)i(web)d(content,)-260 1165 y(client)23
b(nodes)f(could)g(use)f(topological)j(inf)n(ormation)g(in)d(selecting)j
(one)e(of)f(multiple)-260 1242 y(a)n(v)o(ailable)i(ser)o(v)o(ers.)33
b(F)n(or)20 b(such)g(applications,)i(one)f(need)f(not)h(\002nd)e(the)h
(optimal)i(so-)-260 1318 y(lution)g(in)f(order)i(to)e(achie)o(v)o(e)i
(signi\002cant)g(practical)g(bene\002ts.)34 b(Thus,)21
b(these)h(appli-)-260 1394 y(cations,)f(and)f(pr)o(esumably)h(others)f
(lik)o(e)i(them,)e(do)g(not)g(r)o(equir)o(e)h Fs(e)o(xact)g
Fr(topological)-260 1471 y(inf)n(ormation)c(and)e(can)g(instead)h(use)e
(suf\002ciently)j(inf)n(ormati)o(v)o(e)h(hints)d(about)g(the)g(r)o(el-)
-260 1547 y(ati)o(v)o(e)k(positions)f(of)e(Inter)o(net)i(hosts.)-177
1628 y(In)30 b(this)g(paper)-6 b(,)34 b(we)c(pr)o(esent)h(a)f
Fs(binning)i Fr(scheme)g(wher)o(eby)f(nodes)f(partition)-260
1704 y(themselv)o(es)d(into)f(bins)e(such)h(that)g(nodes)g(that)g(fall)
h(within)g(a)f(gi)o(v)o(en)h(bin)f(ar)o(e)h(r)o(el-)-260
1781 y(ati)o(v)o(ely)32 b(close)f(to)f(one)g(another)h(in)f(terms)h(of)
f(netw)o(ork)h(latency)-5 b(.)61 b(Our)29 b(binning)-260
1857 y(strategy)c(is)e(simple)h(\(r)o(equiring)h(minimal)g(support)e
(fr)o(om)h(any)f(measur)o(ement)j(in-)-260 1933 y(frastructur)o(e\),)f
(scalable)e(\(r)o(equiring)g(no)e(f)n(orm)i(of)e(global)i(kno)o
(wledge,)g(each)g(node)-260 2010 y(only)g(needs)f(kno)o(wledge)i(of)e
(a)g(small)h(number)g(of)f(well-kno)o(wn)h(landmark)h(nodes\))-260
2086 y(and)j(completely)k(distrib)o(uted)d(\(r)o(equiring)h(no)f
(communication)i(or)d(cooperation)-260 2163 y(between)18
b(the)f(nodes)g(being)h(binned\).)-177 2243 y(W)l(e)e(apply)g(this)g
(binning)g(strategy)i(to)d(the)h(tw)o(o)g(applications)i(mentioned)f
(abo)o(v)o(e:)-260 2320 y(o)o(v)o(erlay)30 b(netw)o(ork)e(construction)
g(and)f(ser)o(v)o(er)i(selection.)53 b(W)l(e)27 b(test)g(our)g(binning)
-260 2396 y(strategy)j(and)d(its)i(application)h(using)e(simulation)i
(and)e(Inter)o(net)h(measur)o(ement)-260 2473 y(traces.)e(Our)18
b(r)o(esults)h(indicate)h(that)e(the)h(perf)n(ormance)j(of)c(these)h
(applications)i(can)-260 2549 y(be)g(signi\002cantly)j(impr)o(o)o(v)o
(ed)f(by)e(e)o(v)o(en)h(the)g(rather)h(coarse-grained)h(kno)o(wledge)f
(of)-260 2625 y(topology)18 b(offer)o(ed)h(by)d(our)i(binning)f
(scheme.)473 2816 y Fp(I)t(.)45 b(I)t Fq(N)t(T)t(R)q(O)t(D)t(U)t(C)t(T)
t(I)t(O)t(N)-177 2961 y Fp(Se)n(v)o(eral)37 b(ongoing)e(projects)i(mak)
o(e)g(use)h(of)f(application-le)n(v)o(el)e(or)-260 3059
y(o)o(v)o(erlay)d(netw)o(orks)h([1],)j([2],)g([3],)g([4],)g([5],)h
([6],)f([7],)g([8],)g([9].)65 b(In)-260 3158 y(these)22
b(applications,)e(each)i(participating)d(end-host)i(node)f(is)j
(logically)-260 3257 y(connected)79 3227 y Fo(1)134 3257
y Fp(to)g(a)h(small)g(subset)g(of)f(the)g(other)g(participant)f(nodes)h
(\(we)-260 3356 y(call)31 b(this)g(subset)g(the)g(node')-5
b(s)30 b(neighbors\))e(to)j(form)f(an)g(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(net-)-260
3454 y(w)o(ork.)44 b(A)27 b(path)f(on)g(the)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)d(netw)o
(ork)i(then)g(consists)h(of)f(a)h(series)-260 3553 y(of)e
(application-le)n(v)o(el,)f(not)h(IP-le)n(v)o(el,)h(hops)f(between)f
(the)i(source)e(and)-260 3652 y(destination)c(nodes.)28
b(Ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m(,)20 b(in)h(current)f(applications,)h(little)h(ef)
n(fort)-260 3751 y(is)f(made)f(to)g(ensure)f(that)i(this)f
(application-le)n(v)o(el)e(connecti)n(vity)g(is)j(con-)-260
3850 y(gruent)26 b(with)h(the)g(underlying)d(IP-le)n(v)o(el)i(netw)o
(ork)g(topology)-5 b(.)42 b(This)28 b(in)-260 3948 y(turn)d(can)h(lead)
g(to)g(inef)n(\002cient)f(routing)f(where,)j(for)e(e)o(xample,)g(a)i
(node)-260 4047 y(in)21 b(Berk)o(ele)o(y)f(has)h(its)g(neighbor)e
(nodes)h(in)h(Europe)e(and)h(hence)g(its)h(path)-260
4146 y(to)f(a)f(node)f(in)i(Stanford)d(may)i(tra)n(v)o(erse)g(distant)g
(nodes)f(in)i(Europe.)i(Ide-)-260 4245 y(ally)-5 b(,)17
b(one)f(w)o(ould)g(lik)o(e)g(to)h(impro)o(v)o(e)d(routing)h
(performance)f(by)i(a)n(v)n(oiding)-260 4344 y(such)22
b(unnecessary)e(high)h(latenc)o(y)f(hops.)29 b(Thus,)22
b(a)g(fundamental)d(chal-)-260 4442 y(lenge)g(in)h(using)f(lar)o
(ge-scale)f(o)o(v)o(erlay)g(netw)o(orks)g(is)j(to)e(incorporate)f(IP-)
-260 4541 y(le)n(v)o(el)24 b(topological)e(information)f(in)j(the)g
(construction)e(of)i(the)g(o)o(v)o(erlay)-260 4640 y(to)d(impro)o(v)o
(e)c(routing)i(performance.)-177 4743 y(The)38 b(utility)h(of)f
(topological)e(information)g(is)k(ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m(,)g(not)e(re-)-260
4842 y(stricted)30 b(to)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)d(netw)o(ork)i(construction.)53
b(Content)30 b(distrib)n(ution)-260 4941 y(o)o(v)o(er)j(the)h(Internet)
f(is)i(another)d(e)o(xample)h(where)g(such)h(information)-260
5040 y(could)16 b(impro)o(v)o(e)e(performance.)20 b(In)c(recent)g
(years,)h(the)f(W)-7 b(eb)17 b(has)g(mo)o(v)o(ed)-260
5138 y(from)25 b(an)i(architecture)d(where)i(data)g(objects)g(are)h
(located)e(at)i(a)g(single)-260 5237 y(origin)21 b(serv)o(er)h(to)g
(one)g(where)g(objects)g(are)g(often)f(replicated)g(at)i(multi-)-203
5396 y Fq(S.Ratnasamy)l(,)d(M.Handle)o(y)l(,R.Karp)f(and)g(S.Shenk)o
(er)h(are)f(with)g(the)g(ICSI)g(Center)h(for)-260 5469
y(Internet)i(Research,)g(Berk)o(ele)o(y)l(,)g(CA,)d(USA.)g(S.Ratnasamy)
i(and)f(R.Karp)g(are)g(also)g(with)-260 5542 y(the)e(Computer)g
(Science)h(Di)n(vision,)g(Uni)n(v)o(ersity)g(of)e(California,)j(Berk)o
(ele)o(y)l(,)f(CA,)d(USA.)-207 5599 y Fn(1)-172 5622
y Fq(F)o(or)h(e)o(xample,)h(by)f(a)g(TCP)g(connection.)1950
707 y Fp(ple,)28 b(geographically)c(dispersed)h(serv)o(ers.)44
b(Client)27 b(requests)f(for)g(con-)1950 806 y(tent)k(are)g(redirected)
f(to)h(a)h(close-by)e(replica)g(serv)o(er)h(rather)f(than)h(the)1950
904 y(origin)21 b(serv)o(er)-5 b(.)29 b(The)21 b(process)g(of)h
(selecting)f(a)h(\223good\224)e(serv)o(er)m(,)h Fm(i.e)o(.)29
b Fp(one)1950 1003 y(that)g(is)g(close)g(to)f(the)h(client)f(in)h
(terms)g(of)f(latenc)o(y)-5 b(,)29 b(might)f(be)g(signif-)1950
1102 y(icantly)j(impro)o(v)o(ed)d(if)k(both)e(the)h(client)h(and)e
(serv)o(ers)h(could)f(indicate)1950 1201 y(their)c(position)f(on)h(the)
h(Internet.)41 b(Lik)o(e)n(wise,)28 b(peer)n(-to-peer)c(\002le)j(shar)n
(-)1950 1300 y(ing)18 b(applications)g(such)h(as)g(Napster)g(and)f
(Gnutella)g(typically)g(ha)n(v)o(e)h(the)1950 1398 y(same)28
b(\002le)h(a)n(v)n(ailable)f(at)g(multiple)f(peers.)49
b(T)-7 b(opological)26 b(information)1950 1497 y(could)19
b(be)h(used)g(to)h(select)f(a)h(close-by)e(peer)h(for)f(quick)o(er)g
(do)n(wn-loads.)2033 1621 y(The)25 b(problem)f(we)i(e)o(xplore)e(in)i
(this)g(paper)f(is)h(whether)f(it)h(is)h(possi-)1950
1720 y(ble)i(to)g(gather)f(topological)f(information)g(in)i(a)h(manner)
d(that)i(is)h(both)1950 1818 y(practical)25 b(and)f(scalable)h(and)g
(if)h(so,)g(ho)n(w)f(could)f(this)i(information)d(be)1950
1917 y(ef)n(fecti)n(v)o(ely)28 b(incorporated)e(into)k(the)f(design)g
(of)g(distrib)n(uted)g(systems)1950 2016 y(such)20 b(as)h(o)o(v)o
(erlay)d(netw)o(orks)h(and)h(content)f(distrib)n(ution)g(systems?)2033
2140 y(At)h(this)f(point,)g(it)h(is)g(w)o(orth)e(brie\003y)h
(discussing)g(the)g(desirable)f(prop-)1950 2239 y(erties)j(of)g(a)g
(solution)f(to)h(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)e(problem.)26 b(Administrator)19
b(con\002g-)1950 2337 y(ured)24 b(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(netw)o(orks,)h(such)h
(as)g(those)g(used)g(in)f(CDNs)i([10],)f([11],)1950 2436
y([12],)h(can)g(be)g(made)g(to)g(\002t)h(the)f(underlying)d(IP)k
(topology)-5 b(.)40 b(Ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m(,)1950 2535
y(such)19 b(o)o(v)o(erlays)f(are)h(not)h(generally)e(applicable;)g(the)
i(hand-crafted)c(and)1950 2634 y(centralized)24 b(nature)h(of)g(the)g
(o)o(v)o(erlay)e(construction)h(process)h(mak)o(es)g(it)1950
2733 y(untenable)14 b(for)g(lar)o(ge)h(o)o(v)o(erlays)f(\(millions)g
(of)i(nodes\))e(and)h(for)f(o)o(v)o(erlays,)1950 2831
y(such)21 b(as)g(peer)n(-to-peer)d(\002le)k(sharing)e([1],)g([2],)g
([13],)g(where)g(there)g(is)i(no)1950 2930 y(single)30
b(central)g(administrator)-5 b(.)55 b(One)30 b(might)g(also)h(imagine)e
(central-)1950 3029 y(ized)23 b(solutions)f([14])f(wherein)h(a)h
(single)g(site)g(gathers)f(netw)o(ork)g(topol-)1950 3128
y(ogy)29 b(and)g(routing)f(information)f(to)j(infer)f(the)g(relati)n(v)
o(e)g(proximity)f(of)1950 3226 y(hosts.)50 b(Such)29
b(solutions)f(ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)e(result)j(in)g(a)g(single)f(point)g(of)
h(f)o(ail-)1950 3325 y(ure)19 b(and)f(potential)h(bottleneck.)k(Also,)c
(for)g(completely)e(decentralized)1950 3424 y(applications)f(such)h(as)
h(peer)n(-to-peer)d(\002le)j(sharing)e(there)h(is)h(no)f(clear)g(in-)
1950 3523 y(centi)n(v)o(e,)k(economic)f(or)i(otherwise,)f(for)g(a)h
(third)f(party)g(to)h(of)n(fer)f(such)g(a)1950 3622 y(service.)i(W)-7
b(e)17 b(also)e(w)o(anted)g(to)h(a)n(v)n(oid)f(more)g(elaborate)f
(solutions)h(where)1950 3720 y(the)i(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(netw)o(ork)g
(structure)g(is)j(impro)o(v)o(ed)14 b(slo)n(wly)j(o)o(v)o(er)f(time)i
([15].)1950 3819 y(This)f(is)g(because)f(in)g(man)o(y)f(of)i(the)f(tar)
o(geted)f(applications)g([1],)h([2],)h([13])1950 3918
y(for)k(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(netw)o(orks)h(participant)f(nodes)h(join)h(and)
f(lea)n(v)o(e)h(the)f(appli-)1950 4017 y(cation)k(on)f(short)h
(time-scales.)40 b(A)25 b(solution)f(that)h(operates)g(o)o(v)o(er)e
(long)1950 4116 y(time-scales)33 b(w)o(ould)f(be)g(continually)f
(reacting)g(to)i(\003uctuating)f(node)1950 4214 y(membership)20
b(without)h(stabilizing.)30 b(Thus,)22 b(we)h(concluded)c(that)k(a)f
(de-)1950 4313 y(sirable)27 b(solution)f(should)g(be)h(simple,)i(f)o
(ast,)g(distrib)n(uted,)f(and)f(should)1950 4412 y(scale)21
b(to)f(millions)g(of)g(nodes.)2033 4536 y(Another)25
b(question)h(that)g(arises)h(is:)39 b(what)27 b(form)e(of)i(netw)o(ork)
e(mea-)1950 4634 y(surements)d(or)g(data)g(should)g(we)g(use)h(to)g
(deri)n(v)o(e)e(topological)g(informa-)1950 4733 y(tion?)45
b(Netw)o(ork)26 b(tools)h(such)f(as)i Fm(tr)o(acer)l(oute)e
Fp(are)h(primarily)e(intended)1950 4832 y(for)g(netw)o(ork)g
(diagnostic)f(purposes)h(and)g(are)h(too)g(hea)n(vy-weight)d(and)1950
4931 y(intrusi)n(v)o(e)j(for)h(use)h(by)f(lar)o(ge)f(scale)i
(applications.)46 b(Using)27 b Fm(tr)o(acer)l(oute)1950
5030 y Fp(in)22 b(lar)o(ge)e(scale)i(applications)e(w)o(ould)h(result)g
(in)h(e)o(xcessi)n(v)o(e)f(load)g(on)g(the)1950 5128
y(netw)o(ork.)36 b(Additionally)22 b(some)i(edge)g(sites)h(disable)f
(ICMP)h(for)f(secu-)1950 5227 y(rity)16 b(reasons.)23
b(The)16 b(use)h(of)f(BGP)h(routing)e(table)h(dumps)f([14])h(also)g(f)o
(aces)1950 5326 y(certain)25 b(problems.)39 b(Such)25
b(information)e(is)k(not)e(directly)f(a)n(v)n(ailable)h(to)1950
5425 y(end-user)20 b(applications.)29 b(One)21 b(w)o(ould)g(thus)h
(either)f(require)g(pri)n(vile)o(ged)1950 5524 y(access)i(to)f
(internal)f(netw)o(ork)g(information)e(from)i(ISPs,)i(or)f(w)o(ould)f
(de-)1950 5622 y(pend)e(on)h(third)g(party)f(monitoring)f(services)j
(that)f(do)g(ha)n(v)o(e)g(such)g(pri)n(vi-)p eop
%%Page: 2 2
2 1 bop -260 -46 a Fp(le)o(ged)19 b(access)i(and)f(which)f(publish)h
(such)g(information)d(on)j(the)g(W)-7 b(eb)21 b(as)-260
52 y(a)e(service)g(to)g(the)g(community)-5 b(.)21 b(Neither)e(of)f(the)
h(abo)o(v)o(e)e(is)j(a)f(reasonable)-260 151 y(option)30
b(in)h(general.)57 b(W)-7 b(e)32 b(thus)g(chose)e(to)i(use)f(netw)o
(ork)f(latenc)o(y)g(be-)-260 250 y(cause)20 b(latenc)o(y)f(is)i(often)e
(a)i(direct)e(indicator)g(of)h(the)g(performance)d(seen)-260
349 y(by)i(end-host)e(nodes)i(and)f(can)h(be)g(easily)h(measured)e(in)h
(a)h(light-weight,)-260 447 y(end-to-end,)d(non-intrusi)n(v)o(e)h
(manner)-5 b(.)-177 561 y(Finally)g(,)18 b(one)f(might)g(question)g
(the)h(required)e(accurac)o(y)g(of)i(the)g(topo-)-260
660 y(logical)34 b(information.)66 b(In)35 b(both)f(our)g(tar)o(geted)f
(applications)g(\(o)o(v)o(er)n(-)-260 759 y(lay)e(construction)f(and)g
(serv)o(er)h(selection\),)i(incorporating)28 b(topology)-260
858 y(a)o(w)o(areness)i(is)h(really)f(a)h(performance)d(optimization)g
(and)i(is)h(not)f Fm(r)m(e-)-260 956 y(quir)m(ed)17 b
Fp(for)h(correct)e(operation.)23 b(More)17 b(importantly)-5
b(,)16 b(our)h(results)h(sho)n(w)-260 1055 y(that)k(both)f(serv)o(er)f
(selection)i(and)f(o)o(v)o(erlay)e(construction)h(sho)n(w)h(signif-)
-260 1154 y(icant)29 b(performance)c(impro)o(v)o(ements)h(with)i(only)g
(approximate)e(topo-)-260 1253 y(logical)d(information.)32
b(F)o(or)23 b(these)g(reasons,)g(we)h(vie)n(w)f(scalability)g(and)-260
1352 y(practicality)g(as)h(more)f(important)f(goals)h(than)h(accurac)o
(y)-5 b(.)33 b(Hence,)23 b(un-)-260 1450 y(lik)o(e)32
b(man)o(y)e(research)h(projects)f([16],)j([17],)g([18],)g(the)f(focus)e
(of)h(our)-260 1549 y(w)o(ork)18 b(is)h(not)f(on)g(highly)f(accurate)h
(topology)e(modeling,)h(nor)g(on)h(b)n(uild-)-260 1648
y(ing)f(a)g(general-purpose)c(measurement)i(service.)24
b(While)17 b(these)g(are)g(im-)-260 1747 y(portant)23
b(problems)f(in)i(their)f(o)n(wn)g(right,)h(our)f(focus)g(is)i(instead)
e(on)h(the)-260 1846 y(use)c(of)e(simple)h(topological)f(hints)h(to)g
(solv)o(e)g(certain)f(application-le)n(v)o(el)-260 1944
y(problems.)-177 2058 y(In)47 b(this)g(paper)m(,)52 b(we)47
b(propose)f(a)h(distrib)n(uted)f Fm(binning)f Fp(scheme)-260
2157 y(whereby)29 b(nodes)g(partition)g(themselv)o(es)h(into)g
Fm(bins)g Fp(such)g(that)g(nodes)-260 2256 y(that)f(f)o(all)h(within)f
(a)g(gi)n(v)o(en)f(bin)h(are)g(relati)n(v)o(ely)f(close)h(to)h(one)e
(another)-260 2355 y(in)22 b(terms)g(of)g(netw)o(ork)e(latenc)o(y)-5
b(.)29 b(Our)22 b(scheme)f(requires)g(a)h(set)h(of)f(well-)-260
2453 y(kno)n(wn)k Fm(landmark)h Fp(machines)f(spread)h(across)h(the)g
(Internet.)45 b(An)28 b(ap-)-260 2552 y(plication)19
b(node)g(measures)h(its)h(distance,)f Fm(i.e)o(.)25 b
Fp(round-trip)17 b(time,)j(to)g(this)-260 2651 y(set)g(of)e(well)h(kno)
n(wn)f(landmarks)f(and)h(independently)e(selects)j(a)g(partic-)-260
2750 y(ular)26 b(bin)f(based)g(on)g(these)h(measurements.)40
b(Our)26 b(binning)e(scheme)h(is)-260 2849 y(simple,)19
b(requiring)d(v)o(ery)h(little)j(support)d(from)g(the)i
(infrastructure.)j(The)-260 2947 y(only)d(infrastructure)e(required)h
(is)i(a)g(small)g(number)e(\(our)g(results)i(using)-260
3046 y(Internet)27 b(trace)h(data)g(indicates)g(that)g(8-12)f(machines)
g(should)g(suf)n(\002ce)-260 3145 y(for)16 b(the)h(current)e(scale)i
(of)f(the)g(Internet\))f(of)i(relati)n(v)o(ely)e(stable)i(landmark)-260
3244 y(machines.)50 b(V)-9 b(ery)28 b(little)h(w)o(ork)f(is)i(required)
d(of)h(these)h(landmark)e(ma-)-260 3343 y(chines)21 b(\226)g(the)o(y)f
(need)g(only)g(echo)g(\224ping\224)g(messages)h(\226)g(and)f(landmarks)
-260 3441 y(could)39 b(in)g(f)o(act)h(be)f(unsuspecting)f(participants)
g(in)i(the)g(binning!)1820 3411 y Fo(2)-260 3540 y Fp(Landmarks)22
b(do)i(not)g(acti)n(v)o(ely)f(initiate)i(measurements)e(nor)g(gather)g
(or)-260 3639 y(disseminate)i(measurement)e(information.)38
b(Binning)24 b(is)i(scalable)f(be-)-260 3738 y(cause)e(nodes)f
(independently)e(disco)o(v)o(er)i(their)g(bins)h(without)f(commu-)-260
3837 y(nicating)d(or)h(coordinating)e(with)i(other)f(application)g
(nodes.)-177 3950 y(Gi)n(v)o(en)25 b(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)f(binning)f
(strate)o(gy)-5 b(,)25 b(we)h(turn)f(to)g(the)g(problem)f(of)-260
4049 y(ho)n(w)33 b(one)f(might)h(ef)n(fecti)n(v)o(ely)e(incorporate)g
(such)i(a)h(scheme)e(in)i(dis-)-260 4148 y(trib)n(uted)21
b(applications.)30 b(W)-7 b(e)23 b(apply)e(this)h(binning)f(strate)o
(gy)g(to)h(tw)o(o)g(ap-)-260 4247 y(plications:)45 b(o)o(v)o(erlay)29
b(netw)o(ork)g(construction)g(and)h(serv)o(er)f(selection.)-260
4345 y(Results)19 b(obtained)e(through)f(simulation)h(and)g(from)g
(Internet)g(measure-)-260 4444 y(ment)31 b(traces)g(indicate)g(that)g
(e)n(v)o(en)f(the)h(rather)g(coarse-grained)d(topo-)-260
4543 y(logical)j(information)d(pro)o(vided)h(by)h(our)g(binning)g
(strate)o(gy)g(can)h(sig-)-260 4642 y(ni\002cantly)24
b(impro)o(v)o(e)f(the)i(performance)d(of)j(systems)g(such)g(as)h(o)o(v)
o(erlay)-260 4741 y(netw)o(orks)19 b(and)h(CDNs.)-177
4854 y(The)15 b(remainder)f(of)h(this)h(paper)e(is)i(or)o(ganized)c(as)
17 b(follo)n(ws:)22 b(Section)15 b(II)-260 4953 y(describes)20
b(and)g(e)n(v)n(aluates)f(our)g(binning)g(scheme.)24
b(In)c(Sections)h(III)e(and)-260 5052 y(IV)f(we)h(describe)e(and)g(e)n
(v)n(aluate)g(the)h(application)e(of)i(our)f(binning)g(strat-)-260
5151 y(e)o(gy)g(to)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)d(netw)o(ork)i(construction)e(and)i
(serv)o(er)g(selection)g(respec-)-260 5250 y(ti)n(v)o(ely)-5
b(.)43 b(Finally)-5 b(,)27 b(we)f(discuss)h(related)f(w)o(ork)g(in)g
(Section)g(V)h(and)f(con-)-260 5348 y(clude)20 b(in)g(Section)g(VI.)
-207 5526 y Fn(2)-172 5549 y Fq(F)o(or)d(e)o(xample,)i(one)f(might)g
(imagine)h(using)f(the)h(DNS)d(root)j(name)f(serv)o(ers)g(as)f(the)h
(set)-260 5622 y(of)f(landmarks)h(and)g(using)f(the)h(DNS)f(response)h
(times)f(as)g(latenc)o(y)j(measurements.)2527 -46 y Fp(I)t(I)t(.)45
b(D)t Fq(I)t(S)t(T)t(R)t(I)t(B)s(U)t(T)t(E)t(D)26 b Fp(B)t
Fq(I)t(N)t(N)t(I)t(N)t(G)2033 91 y Fp(The)i(goal)g(of)g(our)g(distrib)n
(uted)f(binning)g(scheme)h(is)h(to)g(ha)n(v)o(e)f(a)h(set)1950
190 y(of)19 b(nodes)g(independently)d(partition)j(themselv)o(es)f(into)
i(disjoint)f(\223bins\224)1950 289 y(such)26 b(that)g(nodes)g(within)g
(a)g(single)h(bin)e(are)i(relati)n(v)o(ely)e(closer)h(to)g(one)1950
388 y(another)19 b(than)g(to)i(nodes)e(not)h(in)g(their)g(bin.)2033
487 y(Our)32 b(scheme)g(assumes)h(the)g(e)o(xistence)f(of)g(a)h(well)g
(kno)n(wn)e(set)j(of)1950 586 y(machines)f(that)h(act)g(as)h(landmarks)
d(on)h(the)h(Internet.)65 b(Application)1950 685 y(nodes)32
b(might)g(disco)o(v)o(er)f(the)h(IP)h(addresses)g(of)f(these)h
(machines)f(us-)1950 784 y(ing)22 b(the)g(DNS)g(\(for)f(e)o(xample,)g
(landmark)f(machines)h(could)g(be)h(named)1950 883 y
Fm(lm1.bin.net,)28 b(lm2.bin.net,)g Fl(:)14 b(:)g(:)29
b Fp(rather)e(than)h(hard-coding)c(landmark)1950 981
y(IP)d(addresses)e(into)h(the)h(application\).)2033 1081
y(W)-7 b(e)19 b(achie)n(v)o(e)e(a)i(form)e(of)h(\223distrib)n(uted)f
(binning\224)g(of)h(nodes)f(based)h(on)1950 1180 y(their)i(relati)n(v)o
(e)f(distances,)h Fm(i.e)o(.)k Fp(latencies)c(from)f(this)i(set)g(of)e
(landmarks.)1950 1279 y(A)i(node)f(measures)g(its)h(round-trip-time)c
(to)k(each)f(of)g(these)h(landmarks)1950 1377 y(and)29
b(orders)g(the)g(landmarks)f(in)i(order)e(of)i(increasing)e(R)-5
b(TT)f(.)3813 1347 y Fo(3)3876 1377 y Fp(Thus,)1950 1476
y(based)20 b(on)g(its)h(delay)f(measurements)e(to)j(the)f(dif)n(ferent)
f(landmarks,)f(e)n(v-)1950 1575 y(ery)f(node)g(has)g(an)h(associated)f
(ordering)e(of)j(landmarks.)k(This)c(ordering)1950 1674
y(represents)24 b(the)h(\223bin\224)f(the)h(node)f(belongs)f(to.)40
b(The)24 b(rationale)g(behind)1950 1773 y(this)h(scheme)g(is)g(that)g
(topologically)e(close)i(nodes)f(are)h(lik)o(ely)f(to)h(ha)n(v)o(e)1950
1871 y(the)20 b(same)h(ordering)d(and)h(hence)h(will)h(belong)d(to)j
(the)f(same)g(bin.)2033 1971 y(W)-7 b(e)24 b(can)f(ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)e
(do)h(better)g(than)h(just)g(using)f(the)h(ordering)e(to)i(de-)1950
2070 y(\002ne)c(a)g(bin.)24 b(A)c(node')-5 b(s)18 b(R)-5
b(TT)19 b(measurements)e(to)i(each)g(landmark)d(of)n(fers)1950
2169 y(tw)o(o)21 b(kinds)g(of)g(information:)k(the)c(\002rst)h(is)g
(the)f Fm(r)m(elative)g Fp(distance)g(of)g(the)1950 2267
y(dif)n(ferent)k(landmarks)f(from)i(the)g(gi)n(v)o(en)f(node)h(and)f
(the)i(second)e(is)j(the)1950 2366 y Fm(absolute)18 b
Fp(v)n(alue)h(of)g(these)g(distances.)25 b(The)19 b(ordering)e
(described)h(abo)o(v)o(e)1950 2465 y(only)i(mak)o(es)g(uses)i(of)e(the)
h(relati)n(v)o(e)f(distances)g(of)h(the)f(landmarks)g(from)1950
2564 y(a)h(node.)27 b(The)21 b(absolute)f(v)n(alues)g(of)h(the)g(R)-5
b(TT)22 b(measurements)d(are)i(indi-)1950 2663 y(cated)g(as)g(follo)n
(ws:)27 b(we)21 b(di)n(vide)f(the)h(range)f(of)g(possible)h(latenc)o(y)
f(v)n(alues)1950 2761 y(into)f(a)g(number)e(of)h Fm(le)o(vels)p
Fp(.)25 b(F)o(or)18 b(e)o(xample,)g(we)h(might)f(di)n(vide)g(the)h
(range)1950 2860 y(of)25 b(possible)g(latenc)o(y)g(v)n(alues)f(into)i
(3)f(le)n(v)o(els;)j(le)n(v)o(el)d(0)g(for)g(latencies)g(in)1950
2959 y(the)d(range)f([0,100]ms,)f(le)n(v)o(el)i(1)g(for)g(latencies)g
(between)f([100,200]ms)1950 3058 y(and)i(le)n(v)o(el)g(2)h(for)f
(latencies)g(greater)g(than)g(200ms.)34 b(W)-7 b(e)25
b(then)e(augment)1950 3157 y(the)k(landmark)d(ordering)g(of)j(a)g(node)
e(with)i(a)g Fm(le)o(vel)f(vector)p Fp(;)k(one)c(le)n(v)o(el)1950
3255 y(number)c(corresponding)d(to)24 b(each)f(landmark)e(in)j(the)f
(ordering.)33 b(T)-7 b(o)23 b(il-)1950 3354 y(lustrate,)f(consider)f
(node)g Fl(A)h Fp(in)h(Figure)e(1.)30 b(Its)23 b(distance)e(to)h
(landmarks)1950 3453 y Fl(l)1975 3465 y Fk(1)2012 3453
y Fp(,)29 b Fl(l)2087 3465 y Fk(2)2151 3453 y Fp(and)e
Fl(l)2324 3465 y Fk(3)2388 3453 y Fp(are)g(232ms,)g(51ms)g(and)f(117ms)
g(respecti)n(v)o(ely)-5 b(.)43 b(Hence)1950 3552 y(its)28
b(ordering)e(of)h(landmarks)f(is)i Fl(l)2945 3564 y Fk(2)2982
3552 y Fl(l)3007 3564 y Fk(3)3044 3552 y Fl(l)3069 3564
y Fk(1)3106 3552 y Fp(.)48 b(Using)27 b(the)h(3)f(le)n(v)o(els)h
(de\002ned)1950 3651 y(abo)o(v)o(e,)k(node)d Fl(A)p Fp(')-5
b(s)32 b(le)n(v)o(el)f(v)o(ector)e(corresponding)e(to)k(its)h(ordering)
d(of)1950 3749 y(landmarks)19 b(is)i(\2230)f(1)g(2\224.)25
b(Thus,)20 b(node)f Fl(A)p Fp(')-5 b(s)21 b(bin)f(is)h(\223)p
Fl(l)3472 3761 y Fk(2)3509 3749 y Fl(l)3534 3761 y Fk(3)3571
3749 y Fl(l)3596 3761 y Fk(1)3656 3749 y Fj(:)i(012)p
Fp(\224.)2033 3849 y(Note)17 b(that)h(with)f(the)h(abo)o(v)o(e)d
(binning)h(scheme)h(\(and)f(unlik)o(e)h(schemes)1950
3948 y(in)30 b([16],)i([17]\),)f(a)g(node)e(only)h(needs)g(to)g(disco)o
(v)o(er)f(the)h(distance)g(be-)1950 4047 y(tween)21 b(itself)h(and)e
(the)h(landmarks)f(and)g(can)h(measure)f(these)i(distances)1950
4145 y(itself.)j(Nodes)17 b(need)f(not)h(kno)n(w)g(the)g(inter)n
(-landmarks)e(distances)i(or)h(the)1950 4244 y(distance)g(of)g(other)f
(nodes)h(from)f(the)h(landmarks.)23 b(Also,)c(binning)d(is)j(ro-)1950
4343 y(b)n(ust)25 b(to)h(the)f(f)o(ailure)g(of)g(one)f(or)h(more)f
(landmark)g(nodes.)39 b(In)25 b(the)g(case)1950 4442
y(of)e(landmark)e(f)o(ailures,)h(ne)n(w)h(nodes)f(are)h(binned)e(using)
i(the)f(survi)n(ving)1950 4541 y(landmarks)30 b(while)h(pre)n(viously)f
(binned)g(nodes)h(need)g(only)f(drop)h(the)1950 4639
y(f)o(ailed)26 b(landmark\(s\))e(from)h(their)i(bin)f(identi\002er)-5
b(.)43 b(Of)26 b(course,)h(perfor)n(-)1950 4738 y(mance)19
b(de)o(grades)f(with)i(fe)n(wer)f(landmarks)f(\(the)h(ef)n(fect)g(of)h
(the)f(number)1950 4837 y(of)h(landmarks)f(on)g(binning)g(is)i
(quanti\002ed)e(later\).)2033 4937 y(The)f(purpose)g(of)g(this)i
(binning)d(scheme)h(is)i(to)f(be)f(useful)h(to)g(applica-)1950
5035 y(tions.)28 b(W)-7 b(e)23 b(e)o(xplore)c(this)j(in)g(Sections)f
(III)g(and)f(IV.)29 b(Ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m(,)19 b(we)j(\002rst)1950
5134 y(address)j(tw)o(o)g(questions.)40 b(First,)27 b(is)f(our)e
(binning)g(proposal)g(scalable?)1950 5233 y(From)17 b(the)h(point)f(of)
h(vie)n(w)g(of)f(the)h(nodes)f(being)g(binned,)g(our)g(scheme)h(is)1950
5332 y(clearly)23 b(scalable)h(since)g(nodes)f(need)g(only)f(ha)n(v)o
(e)i(kno)n(wledge)d(of)i(\(and)2003 5453 y Fn(3)2038
5476 y Fq(More)i(precisely)l(,)k(if)c Fi(L)35 b Fh(=)g
Fg(f)p Fi(l)2779 5485 y Fn(0)2814 5476 y Fi(;)11 b(l)2866
5485 y Fn(1)2901 5476 y Fi(;)g(::l)2993 5485 y Ff(m)p
Fe(\000)p Fn(1)3130 5476 y Fg(g)24 b Fq(is)h(the)h(set)f(of)g
Fi(m)g Fq(landmarks,)j(then)1950 5549 y(a)23 b(node)h
Fi(A)e Fq(creates)j(an)e(ordering)i Fi(L)2817 5557 y
Ff(a)2877 5549 y Fq(on)e Fi(L)p Fq(,)h(such)f(that)h
Fi(i)f Fq(appears)h(before)g Fi(j)i Fq(in)d Fi(L)3962
5557 y Ff(a)4022 5549 y Fq(if)1950 5622 y Fi(r)r(tt)p
Fh(\()p Fi(a;)13 b(l)2152 5632 y Ff(i)2178 5622 y Fh(\))21
b Fi(<)e(r)r(tt)p Fh(\()p Fi(a;)13 b(l)2502 5632 y Ff(j)2535
5622 y Fh(\))k Fq(or)g Fi(r)r(tt)p Fh(\()p Fi(a;)c(l)2853
5632 y Ff(i)2879 5622 y Fh(\))20 b(=)g Fi(r)r(tt)p Fh(\()p
Fi(a;)13 b(l)3203 5632 y Ff(j)3235 5622 y Fh(\))k Fq(and)h
Fi(l)3413 5632 y Ff(i)3459 5622 y Fi(<)h(l)3554 5632
y Ff(j)3587 5622 y Fq(.)p eop
%%Page: 3 3
3 2 bop -260 -38 a
 10237196 7370775 0 0 30325391 22102671 startTexFig
 -260 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/eg-binning.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: eg-binning.eps
%%Creator: fig2dev Version 3.2 Patchlevel 1
%%CreationDate: Sat Jul 28 04:37:41 2001
%%For: sylvia@oblaten.aciri.org (Sylvia Ratnasamy)
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 461 336
%%Pages: 0
%%BeginSetup
%%EndSetup
%%Magnification: 1.0000
%%EndComments
/$F2psDict 200 dict def
$F2psDict begin
$F2psDict /mtrx matrix put
/col-1 {0 setgray} bind def
/col0 {0.000 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col1 {0.000 0.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col2 {0.000 1.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col3 {0.000 1.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col4 {1.000 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col5 {1.000 0.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col6 {1.000 1.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col7 {1.000 1.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col8 {0.000 0.000 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col9 {0.000 0.000 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col10 {0.000 0.000 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col11 {0.530 0.810 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col12 {0.000 0.560 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col13 {0.000 0.690 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col14 {0.000 0.820 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col15 {0.000 0.560 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col16 {0.000 0.690 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col17 {0.000 0.820 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col18 {0.560 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col19 {0.690 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col20 {0.820 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col21 {0.560 0.000 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col22 {0.690 0.000 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col23 {0.820 0.000 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col24 {0.500 0.190 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col25 {0.630 0.250 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col26 {0.750 0.380 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col27 {1.000 0.500 0.500 srgb} bind def
/col28 {1.000 0.630 0.630 srgb} bind def
/col29 {1.000 0.750 0.750 srgb} bind def
/col30 {1.000 0.880 0.880 srgb} bind def
/col31 {1.000 0.840 0.000 srgb} bind def

end
save
-31.0 389.0 translate
1 -1 scale

/cp {closepath} bind def
/ef {eofill} bind def
/gr {grestore} bind def
/gs {gsave} bind def
/sa {save} bind def
/rs {restore} bind def
/l {lineto} bind def
/m {moveto} bind def
/rm {rmoveto} bind def
/n {newpath} bind def
/s {stroke} bind def
/sh {show} bind def
/slc {setlinecap} bind def
/slj {setlinejoin} bind def
/slw {setlinewidth} bind def
/srgb {setrgbcolor} bind def
/rot {rotate} bind def
/sc {scale} bind def
/sd {setdash} bind def
/ff {findfont} bind def
/sf {setfont} bind def
/scf {scalefont} bind def
/sw {stringwidth} bind def
/tr {translate} bind def
/tnt {dup dup currentrgbcolor
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add srgb}
  bind def
/shd {dup dup currentrgbcolor 4 -2 roll mul 4 -2 roll mul
  4 -2 roll mul srgb} bind def
 /DrawEllipse {
	/endangle exch def
	/startangle exch def
	/yrad exch def
	/xrad exch def
	/y exch def
	/x exch def
	/savematrix mtrx currentmatrix def
	x y tr xrad yrad sc 0 0 1 startangle endangle arc
	closepath
	savematrix setmatrix
	} def

/$F2psBegin {$F2psDict begin /$F2psEnteredState save def} def
/$F2psEnd {$F2psEnteredState restore end} def
%%EndProlog

$F2psBegin
10 setmiterlimit
n -1000 7480 m -1000 -1000 l 9199 -1000 l 9199 7480 l cp clip
 0.06000 0.06000 sc
/Palatino-BoldItalic ff 255.00 scf sf
6375 2325 m
gs 1 -1 sc (A) col0 sh gr
30.000 slw
% Ellipse
n 6209 6308 150 150 0 360 DrawEllipse gs col0 s gr

% Ellipse
n 4725 4875 150 150 0 360 DrawEllipse gs col0 s gr

% Ellipse
n 1478 1429 150 150 0 360 DrawEllipse gs col0 s gr

% Polyline
7.500 slw
n 1875 2550 m 2100 2550 l 2100 2775 l 1875 2775 l cp gs col7 0.00 shd ef gr gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 3525 4350 m 3750 4350 l 3750 4575 l 3525 4575 l cp gs col7 0.00 shd ef gr gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 4725 1575 m 4950 1575 l 4950 1800 l 4725 1800 l cp gs col7 0.00 shd ef gr gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 1575 1500 m 2025 2625 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 1650 1500 m 3600 4425 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 1650 1350 m 4800 1725 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 6225 2400 m 4875 1650 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 6075 2550 m 2100 2625 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 6150 2550 m 3675 4500 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 4575 4875 m 3675 4500 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 4650 4725 m 2025 2700 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 4725 4650 m 4875 1800 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 6000 6300 m 3675 4500 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 6150 6150 m 4875 1725 l 4875 1800 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [15 45] 45 sd
n 6150 6225 m 2100 2850 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
gs  clippath
1672 2847 m 1800 2775 l 1711 2892 l 1831 2788 l 1792 2743 l cp
clip
n 1200 3300 m 1800 2775 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 1672 2847 m 1800 2775 l 1711 2892 l 1710 2854 l 1672 2847 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
% Polyline
gs  clippath
3353 4315 m 3450 4425 l 3317 4363 l 3444 4458 l 3480 4410 l cp
clip
n 1650 3600 m 3150 4200 l 3450 4425 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 3353 4315 m 3450 4425 l 3317 4363 l 3354 4353 l 3353 4315 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
% Polyline
gs  clippath
6544 2738 m 6450 2625 l 6581 2692 l 6457 2592 l 6420 2639 l cp
clip
n 6975 3525 m 6825 2925 l 6450 2625 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 6544 2738 m 6450 2625 l 6581 2692 l 6544 2700 l 6544 2738 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
% Polyline
gs  clippath
6388 6032 m 6300 6150 l 6334 6007 l 6266 6151 l 6321 6176 l cp
clip
n 6975 3900 m 6825 5025 l 6300 6150 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 6388 6032 m 6300 6150 l 6334 6007 l 6351 6041 l 6388 6032 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
3075 4500 m
gs 1 -1 sc (L) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
3225 4650 m
gs 1 -1 sc (3) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
1425 2625 m
gs 1 -1 sc (L) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
1575 2775 m
gs 1 -1 sc (1) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
5025 1500 m
gs 1 -1 sc (L) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
5175 1575 m
gs 1 -1 sc (2) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
5700 2100 m
gs 1 -1 sc (51) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
3150 2550 m
gs 1 -1 sc (232) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
5625 3150 m
gs 1 -1 sc (117) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
6600 2625 m
gs 1 -1 sc ("L L  L  : 0 1 2") col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
6750 2700 m
gs 1 -1 sc ( 2  3  1) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
900 1050 m
gs 1 -1 sc ("L L L : 0 0 2") col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
1125 1125 m
gs 1 -1 sc (1 2  3) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
1425 2025 m
gs 1 -1 sc (49) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
3000 1500 m
gs 1 -1 sc (98) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
2100 2025 m
gs 1 -1 sc (201) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
5100 4875 m
gs 1 -1 sc ("L  L L : 0 1 2" ) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
5325 4950 m
gs 1 -1 sc (3  2  1) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
6750 6375 m
gs 1 -1 sc (3  2   1) col0 sh gr
/Times-Roman ff 240.00 scf sf
6525 6300 m
gs 1 -1 sc ("L  L  L : 12 2") col0 sh gr
/Palatino-BoldItalic ff 240.00 scf sf
525 3525 m
gs 1 -1 sc (landmarks) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-BoldItalic ff 240.00 scf sf
6450 3825 m
gs 1 -1 sc (Binned nodes) col0 sh gr
30.000 slw
% Ellipse
n 6284 2483 150 150 0 360 DrawEllipse gs col0 s gr

$F2psEnd
rs

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 24 1119 a Fq(Fig.)17 b(1.)37 b Fs(Distrib)o(uted)18
b(binning)1123 -38 y
 11260863 7769988 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 1123 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/bin_levels.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Wed Feb  6 11:17:09 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
560 922 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
476 922 M
(1) Rshow
560 1645 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(2) Rshow
560 2368 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(3) Rshow
560 3092 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(4) Rshow
560 3815 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(5) Rshow
560 4538 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(6) Rshow
1653 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(1) Cshow
3838 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(2) Cshow
6023 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(3) Cshow
LTb
560 560 M
6556 0 V
0 4340 V
-6556 0 V
560 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Gain Ratio) Cshow
grestore
3838 210 M
(Number of Levels) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(TS-10K nodes) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1653 2658 M
2185 217 V
2185 260 V
1653 2658 Pls
3838 2875 Pls
6023 3135 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(TS-1K nodes) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1653 4177 M
2185 303 V
2185 8 V
1653 4177 Crs
3838 4480 Crs
6023 4488 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(PLRG1; 1166 nodes) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1653 1573 M
2185 499 V
2185 79 V
1653 1573 Star
3838 2072 Star
6023 2151 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(PLRG2; 1779 nodes) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1653 1645 M
2185 535 V
2185 73 V
1653 1645 Box
3838 2180 Box
6023 2253 Box
6717 4288 Box
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT4
6402 4131 M
(NLANR \(4 landmarks\)) Rshow
6486 4131 M
462 0 V
1653 1421 M
2185 694 V
2185 253 V
1653 1421 BoxF
3838 2115 BoxF
6023 2368 BoxF
6717 4131 BoxF
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 1135 1169 a Fq(Fig.)e(2.)37 b Fs(Ef)o(fect)19 b(of)e(number)h(of)f(le)
o(vels)i(\(#landmarks)f(=)e(12\))2636 -38 y
 11260863 7769988 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 2636 -38
a
%%BeginDocument: fig/bin_landmarks.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Wed Feb  6 14:23:51 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
560 922 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
476 922 M
(1) Rshow
560 1645 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(2) Rshow
560 2368 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(3) Rshow
560 3092 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(4) Rshow
560 3815 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(5) Rshow
560 4538 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(6) Rshow
1380 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4) Cshow
3019 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8) Cshow
4658 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(12) Cshow
6297 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(16) Cshow
LTb
560 560 M
6556 0 V
0 4340 V
-6556 0 V
560 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Gain Ratio) Cshow
grestore
3838 210 M
(Number of Landmarks) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(TS-10K nodes) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1380 994 M
1639 796 V
1639 868 V
1639 651 V
1380 994 Pls
3019 1790 Pls
4658 2658 Pls
6297 3309 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(TS-1K nodes) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1380 1717 M
3019 3670 L
1639 507 V
1639 144 V
1380 1717 Crs
3019 3670 Crs
4658 4177 Crs
6297 4321 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(PLRG-1; 1166 nodes) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1380 1059 M
1639 297 V
1639 217 V
1639 72 V
1380 1059 Star
3019 1356 Star
4658 1573 Star
6297 1645 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(PLRG-2; 1779 nodes) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1380 1023 M
1639 456 V
1639 166 V
1639 145 V
1380 1023 Box
3019 1479 Box
4658 1645 Box
6297 1790 Box
6717 4288 Box
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT4
6402 4131 M
(NLANR 103 nodes) Rshow
6486 4131 M
462 0 V
1380 1262 M
1639 -8 V
1639 167 V
1639 311 V
1380 1262 BoxF
3019 1254 BoxF
4658 1421 BoxF
6297 1732 BoxF
6717 4131 BoxF
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 2664 1169 a Fq(Fig.)h(3.)37 b Fs(Ef)o(fect)18 b(of)g(number)f(of)g
(landmarks)h(\(#le)o(vels)i(=)c(1\))-260 1267 y Fp(perform)24
b(measurements)h(to\))h(a)g(small)h(set)g(of)f(landmarks.)41
b(The)26 b(only)-260 1366 y(remaining)16 b(issue)j(is)g(the)f(load)f
(such)h(measurement)e(place)i(on)g(the)g(land-)-260 1464
y(marks;)32 b(a)c(quick)g(back-of-the-en)m(v)o(elop)o(e)23
b(calculation)k(indicates)h(that)-260 1563 y(this)e(load)e(is)i(quite)e
(manageable)f(for)h(systems)i(with)f(a)g(million)f(nodes)-260
1662 y(or)31 b(more.)59 b(F)o(or)31 b(e)o(xample,)i(assume)e(we)h(ha)n
(v)o(e)f(a)h(million)f(nodes)g(and)-260 1761 y(need)e(10)g(pings)g(to)g
(obtain)f(a)i(good)e(sample)h(of)g(the)h(R)-5 b(TT)29
b(to)h(a)g(land-)-260 1860 y(mark.)24 b(If)19 b(nodes)f(refresh)g
(their)h(bin)f(information)f(once)h(per)h(hour)m(,)1678
1830 y Fo(4)1729 1860 y Fp(that)-260 1958 y(w)o(ould)27
b(impose)g(a)i(load)e(of)h(approximately)d(2700)h(pings)h(per)h(second)
-260 2057 y(on)g(each)g(landmark.)370 2027 y Fo(5)451
2057 y Fp(T)-7 b(o)28 b(further)f(impro)o(v)o(e)f(scalability)-5
b(,)30 b(one)d(might)-260 2156 y(ha)n(v)o(e)f(multiple)g(close-by)g
(nodes)g(act)h(as)h(a)f(single)g(logical)f(landmark.)-260
2255 y(F)o(or)16 b(e)o(xample,)f(the)i(Computer)e(Science)h(department)
e(at)j(U.C.Berk)o(ele)o(y)-260 2354 y(might)23 b(install)h(10)f
(machines)g(that)h(all)g(act)g(as)g(a)g(single)f(landmark,)f(say)-260
2452 y Fm(lm1.bin.net)p Fp(.)27 b(Since)21 b(these)g(machines)g(are)g
(geographically)d(and)j(topo-)-260 2551 y(logically)f(co-located,)f
(application)h(nodes)g(can)h(use)g(an)o(y)f(one)g(of)h(them)-260
2650 y(as)31 b(Landmark#1)c(\(and)j(DNS)g(round-robin)d(might)j(be)g
(used)g(to)g(load)-260 2749 y(balance)19 b(amongst)h(the)g(10)g
(machines\).)-177 2858 y(The)f(second)f(question)f(we)j(address)e(is;)i
(does)f(binning)e(do)i(a)g(reason-)-260 2957 y(able)26
b(job)f(of)g(placing)f(nearby)g(nodes)h(into)g(the)h(same)f(bin?)41
b(T)-7 b(o)26 b(do)f(so,)-260 3055 y(we)c(calculate)f(the)g(follo)n
(wing:)-260 3175 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(a)n(v)o(erage)29 b(inter)n(-bin)g
(latenc)o(y:)44 b(the)31 b(a)n(v)o(erage)e(latenc)o(y)g(from)g(a)i(gi)n
(v)o(en)-260 3273 y(node)19 b(to)i(all)f(nodes)g(not)g(in)g(its)h(bin)
-260 3372 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(a)n(v)o(erage)29 b(intra-bin)f(latenc)o(y:)
44 b(the)30 b(a)n(v)o(erage)f(latenc)o(y)g(from)g(a)i(gi)n(v)o(en)-260
3471 y(node)19 b(to)i(all)f(nodes)g(in)g(its)h(bin)-177
3590 y(F)o(or)g(e)n(v)o(ery)f(bin)g(containing)f(tw)o(o)j(or)e(more)h
(nodes,)f(we)h(compute)f(the)-260 3689 y(ratio)28 b(of)g(the)g(inter)n
(-bin)f(latenc)o(y)g(to)h(the)g(intra-bin)f(latenc)o(y)g(for)g(nodes)
-260 3788 y(within)f(that)f(bin.)42 b(W)-7 b(e)26 b(call)h(this)f(the)g
(node')-5 b(s)25 b Fm(gain)f Fp(ratio.)42 b(The)25 b(metric)-260
3887 y(we)30 b(use)f(to)h(e)n(v)n(aluate)e(binning)g(is)i(the)f(a)n(v)o
(erage)g(o)o(v)o(er)e(all)j(nodes)f(\(that)-260 3986
y(belong)c(to)h(bins)f(of)h(size)h(greater)e(than)g(one)g(node\))g(of)g
(the)h(gain)f(ratio.)-260 4084 y(Intuiti)n(v)o(ely)-5
b(,)22 b(what)h(the)h(gain)f(ratio)g(represents)f(is)j(that)e(on)g(the)
h(a)n(v)o(erage)-260 4183 y(if)17 b(a)h(node)e(were)h(to)g(communicate)
e(with)i(a)g(random)e(node)h(from)g(its)i(o)n(wn)-260
4282 y(bin)f(instead)g(of)g(a)h(random)e(node)g(not)h(in)g(its)i(bin,)e
(then)g(the)g(communica-)-260 4381 y(tion)j(latenc)o(y)f(w)o(ould)g(be)
h(reduced)e(by)i(a)g(f)o(actor)g(equal)f(to)h(its)h(gain)e(ratio.)-260
4479 y(A)g(higher)e(gain)h(ratio)g(indicates)h(a)g(bigger)e(reduction)f
(in)j(latenc)o(y)f(and)g(is)-260 4578 y(hence)f(desirable.)23
b(Of)18 b(course,)g(binning)e(\(and)g(hence)h(its)i(performance\))-260
4677 y(by)26 b(itself)h(is)g(not)f(particularly)f(interesting;)j(the)f
(utility)f(really)g(comes)-260 4776 y(from)15 b(its)j(application)d(to)
h(actual)g(Internet)f(systems.)24 b(Our)16 b(e)n(v)n(aluation)f(of)-207
4935 y Fn(4)-172 4958 y Fq(A)e(refresh)i(rate)g(of)e(once/hour)j(w)o
(on')o(t)f(enable)g(nodes)f(to)g(react)i(immediately)g(to)e(e)n(v)o
(ents)-260 5031 y(such)21 b(as)g(link)g(f)o(ailures;)k(ho)n(we)n(v)o
(er)m(,)e(we)e(deem)g(this)g(acceptable)k(since)c(stale)h(binning)g
(in-)-260 5104 y(formation)d(will)f(only)f(result)i(in)e(some)n(what)h
(increased)h(delays.)-207 5161 y Fn(5)-172 5184 y Fq(Such)i(loads)h
(are)f(easily)h(handled)h(by)e(modern)g(midrange)h(PCs.)31
b(W)-5 b(e)21 b(e)o(xperimented)-260 5257 y(with)i(an)f(800MHz)g
(Athlon-based)i(machine)f(and)g(found)f(that)h(it)f(could)h(easily)g
(recei)n(v)o(e)-260 5330 y(2,700)14 b(pings)g(per)h(second)g(with)f(no)
g(loss.)20 b(Moreo)o(v)o(er)m(,)15 b(as)f(a)g(reference)j(point,)e(a)f
(DNS)f(trace)-260 5403 y(from)19 b(October)i(1999)e(sho)n(ws)g(that)i
(the)f(root)g(name)f(serv)o(er)h Fs(f)o(.r)m(oot-server)o(s.net)i
Fq(w)o(as)d(han-)-260 5476 y(dling)h(\(with)f(some)f(headroom\))i(a)e
(10)g(minute)i(a)o(v)o(erage)g(of)e(1,600)h(requests)g(per)g(second.)
-260 5549 y(Since)f(ICMP)f(is)f(presumably)i(lo)n(wer)g(cost)f(than)h
(serving)f(DNS,)f(the)h(load)h(on)e(landmarks)-260 5622
y(w)o(ould)i(not)g(be)f(a)g(signi\002cant)i(problem.)1950
1267 y Fp(binning)h(is)j(thus)f(primarily)f(a)i(sanity)f(check)f(to)h
(con\002rm)f(that)h(binning)1950 1366 y(does)e(achie)n(v)o(e)f(its)i
(goal)f(of)g(clustering)f(nearby)g(nodes.)2033 1469 y(W)-7
b(e)18 b(tested)g(our)e(binning)f(algorithm)h(on)g(both)h(simulated)f
(topologies)1950 1568 y(and)23 b(Internet)g(measurement)g(data.)36
b(The)24 b(test)g(topologies)f(we)h(use)h(are)1950 1667
y(as)c(follo)n(ws:)1950 1775 y(1.)41 b(TS-10K)53 b(and)h(TS-1K:)g(T)m
(ransit-Stub)f(topologies)f([19])h(with)1950 1874 y(10,000)20
b(and)i(1,000)e(nodes)i(respecti)n(v)o(ely)-5 b(.)29
b(TS)23 b(topologies)e(model)g(net-)1950 1973 y(w)o(orks)h(using)g(a)h
(2-le)n(v)o(el)f(hierarchy)e(of)i(routing)f(domains)h(with)g(transit)
1950 2072 y(domains)28 b(that)g(interconnect)f(lo)n(wer)h(le)n(v)o(el)g
(stub)h(domains.)49 b(T)-7 b(o)28 b(these)1950 2171 y(TS)21
b(topologies,)e(we)j(assign)e(link)h(latencies)g(of)f(20ms)g(for)h
(intra-transit)1950 2269 y(domain)j(links,)j(5ms)f(for)f(stub-transit)g
(links)h(and)f(2ms)h(for)f(intra-stub)1950 2368 y(domain)18
b(links)h(\(we)h(also)f(e)o(xperimented)e(with)i(a)h(delay)f(distrib)n
(ution)f(of)1950 2467 y(100,)23 b(10)g(and)g(1ms)h(instead)f(of)g(20,)h
(5)f(and)g(2ms)g(respecti)n(v)o(ely)f(with)i(no)1950
2566 y(real)c(change)f(in)h(our)g(results\).)1950 2664
y(2.)41 b(PLRG1)33 b(and)g(PLRG2:)51 b(Recent)33 b(studies)g([20],)i
([21])d(ha)n(v)o(e)g(indi-)1950 2763 y(cated)18 b(that)g(the)g
(Internet')-5 b(s)17 b(de)o(gree)f(distrib)n(ution)h(follo)n(ws)g(a)i
(po)n(wer)n(-la)o(w)-5 b(.)1950 2862 y(Moti)n(v)n(ated)23
b(by)g(these)h(observ)n(ations,)f(de)o(gree-based)e(generators)h(ha)n
(v)o(e)1950 2961 y(been)g(proposed)e([22])i(which)g(appear)f(to)i
(better)f(model)g(the)h(measured)1950 3060 y(Internet)d(topology)-5
b(.)25 b(W)-7 b(e)22 b(mak)o(e)e(use)i(of)e(the)i(same)f(po)n(wer)n
(-la)o(w)e(random)1950 3158 y(graph)k(generator)f(as)i(used)g(by)g
([21],)f([22].)36 b(PLRG1)24 b(and)f(PLRG2)i(are)1950
3257 y(Po)n(wer)n(-La)o(w)15 b(Random)g(Graphs)h(with)h(1,166)d(and)i
(1,779)f(nodes)g(respec-)1950 3356 y(ti)n(v)o(ely)-5
b(.)38 b(T)-7 b(o)24 b(each)h(link)f(in)h(the)g(topology)-5
b(,)23 b(we)i(assign)g(a)g(random)e(delay)1950 3455 y(between)c(5)i
(and)e(100ms.)2713 3425 y Fo(6)1950 3554 y Fp(3.)41 b(NLANR:)18
b(The)f(Acti)n(v)o(e)g(Measurement)f(Project)i(\(AMP\))f(at)h(the)g
(Na-)1950 3652 y(tional)d(Laboratory)e(for)i(Applied)g(Netw)o(ork)f
(Research)i(\(NLANR\))f(uses)1950 3751 y(a)33 b(distrib)n(uted)f(netw)o
(ork)f(of)i(o)o(v)o(er)e(100)h(acti)n(v)o(e)g(monitors)g(to)h(system-)
1950 3850 y(atically)c(perform)e(scheduled)h(measurements)g(between)g
(each)h(other)-5 b(.)1950 3949 y(Amongst)30 b(other)f(things,)k
(monitors)c(measure)h(the)h(round)e(trip)h(times)1950
4048 y(\(R)-5 b(TT\))39 b(between)f(the)h(dif)n(ferent)f(pairs)h(of)g
(monitors.)80 b(W)-7 b(e)40 b(use)g(an)1950 4146 y(NLANR)31
b(data)g(set)g(with)g(the)g(round-trip-times)c(between)j(103)g(such)
1950 4245 y(monitors.)61 b(Our)32 b(data)g(set)h(is)h(from)d
(measurements)g(tak)o(en)h(in)h(April)1950 4344 y(2001.)54
b(The)31 b(NLANR)g(sites)g(are)g(primarily)e(located)h(at)h(uni)n(v)o
(ersities)1950 4443 y(in)j(North)e(America.)64 b(The)33
b(details)h(of)f(the)g(NLANR)h(measurement)1950 4542
y(methodology)17 b(and)j(sites)h(is)g(described)e(in)h([23].)2033
4650 y(Recent)26 b(w)o(ork)f(has)h(focused)f(on)g(placement)f(strate)o
(gies)i(for)f(instru-)1950 4749 y(mentation)d(box)o(es)g([24],)h([18].)
33 b(In)23 b(our)f(w)o(ork,)h(we)h(mak)o(e)f(minimal)f(as-)1950
4848 y(sumptions)e(about)f(the)i(placement)e(of)h(our)g(Landmark)f
(machines.)25 b(F)o(or)1950 4946 y(each)f(of)h(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)e
(topologies,)h(we)h(place)g(the)g(required)e(number)g(of)1950
5045 y(landmarks)17 b(at)i(random)e(with)h(the)h(only)e(condition)g
(that)i(the)f(landmarks)1950 5144 y(be)e(separated)g(from)f(each)h
(other)g(by)g(a)h(certain)e(number)g(of)h(hops.)23 b(In)16
b(our)1950 5243 y(simulations,)h(we)h(use)f(a)h(separation)e(distance)h
(of)g(four)f(hops.)23 b(More)17 b(so-)2003 5380 y Fn(6)2038
5403 y Fq(These)24 b(delay)i(assignments)g(are)f(probably)h(quite)g
(misleading,)i(since)d(the)g(true)h(In-)1950 5476 y(ternet)21
b(latencies)g(are)f(not)f(random;)i(at)e(the)h(v)o(ery)f(least,)h(the)o
(y)g(usually)g(obe)o(y)g(the)f(triangle)1950 5549 y(inequality)l(.)k
(Ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m(,)16 b(we)e(do)h(not)f(yet)h(kno)n(w)g(ho)n(w)g(to)
f(realistically)19 b(model)c(the)g(latencies)1950 5622
y(on)i(a)g(PLRG.)p eop
%%Page: 4 4
4 3 bop -260 -46 a Fp(phisticated)20 b(placement)e(schemes,)i(as)h
(described)e(in)h([24])f(w)o(ould)h(only)-260 52 y(serv)o(e)g(to)g
(impro)o(v)o(e)e(our)i(results.)-177 161 y(The)g(k)o(e)o(y)g
(parameters)f(af)n(fecting)f(performance)g(are)-260 279
y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(type)19 b(and)h(scale)h(of)f(topology)-260
378 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(number)18 b(of)i(nodes)f(being)h(binned)-260
477 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(number)18 b(of)i(le)n(v)o(els)-260
575 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(number)18 b(of)i(landmarks)-177
694 y(F)o(or)k(all)h(results)g(presented)e(in)i(this)g(section,)g(all)g
(nodes)f(in)g(the)h(data)-260 792 y(set)c(\(other)e(than)h(landmark)e
(nodes\))h(are)h(binned.)-177 901 y(In)27 b(Figure)g(2,)h(we)g(\002x)g
(the)f(number)e(of)i(landmarks)f(at)h(12)g(and)g(plot)-260
1000 y(the)h(ef)n(fect)g(of)g(increasing)f(numbers)f(of)i(le)n(v)o(els)
g(on)g(the)g(a)n(v)o(erage)f(gain)-260 1098 y(ratio.)j(F)o(or)21
b(only)g(the)h(NLANR)g(data)g(plot,)g(the)g(number)e(of)h(landmarks)
-260 1197 y(w)o(as)26 b(\002x)o(ed)e(at)i(4.)233 1167
y Fo(7)305 1197 y Fp(W)m(ith)g(a)f(single)g(le)n(v)o(el,)g(all)h
(latencies)f(belong)f(to)h(the)-260 1296 y(same)32 b(le)n(v)o(el)f(and)
g(hence)g(only)g(the)h(landmark)e(ordering)f(de\002nes)j(the)-260
1395 y(bin.)24 b(F)o(or)16 b(higher)f(le)n(v)o(els,)i(we)g(use)g(a)g
(demarcation)e(latenc)o(y)g(v)n(alue)h Fl(D)1724 1407
y Fc(dem)-260 1494 y Fp(to)31 b(di)n(vide)f(the)h(range)f(of)h(latenc)o
(y)f(v)n(alues)h(into)f(the)h(desired)g(number)-260 1592
y(of)d(le)n(v)o(els.)49 b(W)-7 b(e)29 b(e)o(xperimented)c(with)k(dif)n
(ferent)d(demarcation)g(v)n(alues)-260 1691 y(and)f(found)e(that)i(for)
f(most)h(reasonably)f(selected)h(v)n(alues,)g(our)f(results)-260
1790 y(remain)17 b(lar)o(gely)g(unchanged.)k(In)d(all)g(the)g
(simulations)g(presented)f(here,)-260 1889 y(we)23 b(use)f(the)h(a)n(v)
o(erage)e(latenc)o(y)g(of)h(the)h(underlying)c(topology)-5
b(,)20 b(denoted)-260 1988 y(by)32 b Fl(D)-75 2000 y
Fc(ip)-14 1988 y Fp(,)k(to)c(demarcate)f(the)h(dif)n(ferent)f(le)n(v)o
(els.)60 b(At)33 b(tw)o(o)g(le)n(v)o(els,)h(we)-260 2086
y(di)n(vide)15 b(latencies)h(into)g(tw)o(o)g(le)n(v)o(els)g(as)h(being)
e(less)i(than)e Fl(D)1418 2098 y Fc(ip)1496 2086 y Fp(\(le)n(v)o(el)g
(0\))h(or)-260 2185 y(greater)22 b(than)g Fl(D)229 2197
y Fc(ip)291 2185 y Fp(.)34 b(W)-7 b(e)24 b(di)n(vide)d(latencies)i
(into)g(three)f(le)n(v)o(els)h(as)h(being)-260 2284 y(less)17
b(than)f Fj(\(0)p Fl(:)p Fj(75)s Fb(\002)s Fl(D)362 2296
y Fc(ip)423 2284 y Fj(\))p Fp(,)h(or)f(between)f Fj(\(0)p
Fl(:)p Fj(75)s Fb(\002)s Fl(D)1193 2296 y Fc(ip)1254
2284 y Fj(\))i Fp(and)e Fj(\(1)p Fl(:)p Fj(25)s Fb(\002)s
Fl(D)1760 2296 y Fc(ip)1821 2284 y Fj(\))-260 2383 y
Fp(or)20 b(greater)f(than)h Fj(\(1)p Fl(:)p Fj(25)d Fb(\002)h
Fl(D)595 2395 y Fc(ip)657 2383 y Fj(\))p Fp(.)-177 2491
y(In)23 b(Figure)g(2,)g(an)g(a)n(v)o(erage)f(gain)h(ratio)g(of)f(4.06)h
(for)f(TS-10K)g(with)i(3)-260 2590 y(le)n(v)o(els)e(indicates)g(that)g
(for)f(a)h(gi)n(v)o(en)f(node,)g(a)h(node)f(within)h(its)h(o)n(wn)e
(bin)-260 2689 y(is)f(on)f(an)g(a)n(v)o(erage,)f(four)g(times)i(closer)
e(than)h(one)g(not)g(in)g(its)h(bin.)k(While)-260 2788
y(increasing)d(the)i(number)e(of)h(le)n(v)o(els)g(impro)o(v)o(es)f(the)
h(gain)g(ratio,)g(we)h(see)-260 2887 y(that)c(the)h(impro)o(v)o(ement)c
(appears)i(to)h(rapidly)f(saturate,)h(indicating)f(that)-260
2985 y(in)j(practice,)e(just)h(2-3)g(le)n(v)o(els)g(should)f(suf)n
(\002ce.)-177 3094 y(Figure)f(3)g(plots)h(the)f(a)n(v)o(erage)f(gain)g
(ratio)h(for)g(an)g(increasing)g(number)-260 3193 y(of)26
b(landmarks.)41 b(The)25 b(number)g(of)g(le)n(v)o(els)h(w)o(as)h(\002x)
o(ed)f(at)g(one.)42 b(F)o(or)26 b(the)-260 3291 y(reason)j(mentioned)f
(abo)o(v)o(e,)h(the)h(data)f(points)h(for)e(the)i(NLANR)g(plot)-260
3390 y(actually)17 b(correspond)d(to)j(2,3,4)f(and)g(5)i(landmarks)d
(\(not)h(4,8,12)g(and)g(16;)-260 3489 y(we)28 b(plotted)f(it)h(on)g
(the)f(same)h(graph)f(due)g(to)g(space)h(limitations\).)47
b(As)-260 3588 y(e)o(xpected,)29 b(increasing)e(the)i(number)e(of)h
(landmarks)f(results)i(in)g(more)-260 3687 y(\002ne-grained)18
b(binning,)g(thereby)h(impro)o(ving)e(the)k(gain)e(ratio.)-177
3795 y(By)h(comparing)d(the)j(results)g(for)f(TS-10K)g(and)g(TS-1K,)f
(we)i(see)h(that)-260 3894 y(the)29 b(gain)f(ratio)h(is)h(clearly)f(af)
n(fected)f(by)h(the)g(size)g(of)g(the)g(underlying)-260
3993 y(topology)-5 b(.)22 b(Our)e(simulations)f(sho)n(wed)g(that)g(for)
g(a)h(gi)n(v)o(en)f(topology)-5 b(,)17 b(the)-260 4091
y(gain)26 b(ratio)g(v)n(aries)h(little)h(with)e(the)h(number)e(of)i
(nodes)f(being)f(binned,)-260 4190 y Fm(i.e)o(.)g Fp(for)18
b(a)h(gi)n(v)o(en)f(topology)-5 b(,)16 b(the)j(density)g(of)f(nodes)h
(being)e(binned)h(does)-260 4289 y(not)i(af)n(fect)g(the)g(gain)f
(ratio.)-177 4398 y(W)-7 b(e)27 b(also)e(measured)f(the)i(ef)n(fect)e
(of)h(the)h(number)d(of)i(landmarks)f(on)-260 4496 y(the)k(number)e(of)
i(bins)g(for)f(the)h(dif)n(ferent)e(topologies)g(and)i(found)e(that)
-260 4595 y(with)37 b(the)f(e)o(xception)e(of)i(TS-10K,)g(the)g(number)
e(of)i(bins)h(saturates)-260 4694 y(around)24 b(8)h(landmarks)f(e)o
(xplaining)f(why)i(we)h(see)g(little)g(impro)o(v)o(ement)-260
4793 y(in)21 b(the)f(gain)f(ratio)h(be)o(yond)e(that)i(point.)-177
4901 y(The)h(abo)o(v)o(e)e(results)j(tell)g(us)f(what)g(kind)g(of)g
(gain)f(ratios)h(our)f(binning)-260 5000 y(scheme)i(pro)o(vides)f(and)h
(ho)n(w)g(it)h(is)h(af)n(fected)d(by)h(the)h(number)e(of)h(le)n(v)o
(els)-260 5099 y(and)i(landmarks.)34 b(But,)25 b(we)g(w)o(ould)e(lik)o
(e)h(to)g(kno)n(w)f(ho)n(w)h(well)g(our)f(bin-)-260 5198
y(ning)d(scheme)f(w)o(orks)h(relati)n(v)o(e)g(to)g(other)g(binning)e
(techniques.)24 b Fm(I.e)o(.)h Fp(are)-260 5296 y(the)c(abo)o(v)o(e)f
(gain)g(ratios)h(good?)27 b(W)-7 b(e)22 b(use)g(the)f(follo)n(wing)f
(algorithms)g(to)-207 5453 y Fn(7)-172 5476 y Fq(Because)f(the)f(NLANR)
e(data)i(has)f(only)h(103)f(nodes,)g(we)g(a)o(v)o(oid)h(using)g(a)f
(lar)o(ger)h(num-)-260 5549 y(ber)f(of)g(landmarks)g(because)i(this)e
(w)o(ould)h(cause)f(the)g(nodes)h(to)e(be)h(spread)h(across)f(a)g(lar)o
(ge)-260 5622 y(number)h(of)f(bins,)g(resulting)i(in)e(v)o(ery)g(fe)n
(w)h(nodes)g(per)f(bin.)1950 -46 y Fp(pro)o(vide)j(us)h(with)h
(reasonable)e(upper)h(and)g(lo)n(wer)g(bounds)f(on)h(the)g(gain)1950
52 y(ratios)f(one)g(might)f(e)o(xpect)h(from)f(an)o(y)g(binning)g
(technique:)1950 161 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(Random)14 b(binning:)22
b(Using)16 b(the)g(same)g(number)e(of)i(bins)g(as)g(generated)1950
260 y(by)k(our)f(landmark-based)f(binning)g(scheme,)i(each)g(node)f
(selects)i(a)g(bin)1950 359 y(at)26 b(random.)38 b(Random)24
b(binning)g(thus)h(mak)o(es)g(no)g(attempt)f(to)i(achie)n(v)o(e)1950
458 y(locality)20 b(and)f(acts)i(as)g(a)g(lo)n(wer)f(bound)e(for)h(the)
i(gain)e(ratio.)1950 556 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(Nearest-neighbor)34
b(clustering:)58 b(Our)37 b(binning)f(problem)f(is)k(v)o(ery)1950
655 y(similar)33 b(to)g(the)g(clustering)f(problem)f(which)i(has)g
(been)f(e)o(xtensi)n(v)o(ely)1950 754 y(studied)26 b(in)h(the)f(theory)
g(community)-5 b(.)41 b(In)26 b(clustering)g(the)h(input)e(com-)1950
853 y(prises)k(a)h(set)g(of)e(data)h(points,)i(each)d(ha)n(ving)g(a)i
(set)f(of)g(attrib)n(utes)g(and)1950 952 y(a)e(similarity)g(measure)f
(among)g(them.)45 b(The)26 b(goal)h(is)h(to)f(\002nd)f(clusters)1950
1050 y(such)e(that)g(data)g(points)g(in)g(one)g(cluster)g(are)g(more)f
(similar)h(to)g(one)g(an-)1950 1149 y(other)m(,)19 b(and)h(data)h
(points)f(in)h(separate)f(clusters)g(are)h(less)h(similar)e(to)h(one)
1950 1248 y(another)-5 b(.)53 b(While)31 b(optimal)e(clustering)g(is)i
(kno)n(wn)e(to)h(be)g(NP-hard,)h(a)1950 1347 y(widely)19
b(used)h(clustering)f(algorithm)f(kno)n(wn)g(to)i(achie)n(v)o(e)f(good)
f(results)1950 1446 y(for)k(a)i(v)n(ariety)e(of)g(applications)g(is)i
(Nearest)f(Neighbor)e(Clustering.)33 b(In)1950 1544 y(Nearest)20
b(Neighbor)e(clustering,)g(each)i(node)f(is)h(initially)g(assigned)f
(to)h(a)1950 1643 y(cluster)26 b(by)f(itself.)43 b(At)27
b(each)e(iteration,)i(the)f(tw)o(o)g Fm(closest)g Fp(clusters)h(are)
1950 1742 y(mer)o(ged)17 b(into)i(a)h(single)f(cluster)-5
b(.)25 b(The)19 b(algorithm)f(terminates)h(when)g(the)1950
1841 y(required)j(number)g(of)i(clusters)g(are)g(obtained.)35
b(When)24 b(applied)f(to)h(our)1950 1940 y(problem,)31
b(we)g(repeatedly)e(mer)o(ge)g(the)h(tw)o(o)h(clusters)g(with)g(the)f
(min-)1950 2038 y(imum)f(inter)n(-cluster)h(latenc)o(y)-5
b(,)31 b(where)e(the)i(inter)n(-cluster)e(latenc)o(y)g(be-)1950
2137 y(tween)f(tw)o(o)g(clusters)g(is)g(the)g(a)n(v)o(erage)f(latenc)o
(y)g(between)g(nodes)g(from)1950 2236 y(one)17 b(cluster)h(to)h(nodes)e
(in)h(the)g(other)-5 b(.)24 b(Nearest)18 b(neighbor)e(clustering)h(re-)
1950 2335 y(quires)24 b(global)f(kno)n(wledge)f(of)j(the)f(latencies)g
(between)g(all)h(the)f(nodes)1950 2434 y(and)16 b(is)h(clearly)f(not)g
(practical)g(for)g(actual)g(deplo)o(yment)f(on)h(the)g(Internet,)1950
2532 y(b)n(ut)27 b(serv)o(es)f(as)h(a)g(useful)f(potential)g(lo)n(wer)g
(bound)f(to)i(an)o(y)e(distrib)n(uted)1950 2631 y(binning)18
b(scheme.)2033 2740 y(Figure)52 b(4)g(plots)h(the)f(a)n(v)o(erage)f
(gain)h(ratio)g(for)g(the)g(dif)n(ferent)1950 2839 y(topologies)24
b(using)g(landmark-based)e(binning,)i(random)g(binning)f(and)1950
2938 y(nearest-neighbor)h(clustering.)47 b(Not)27 b(surprisingly)-5
b(,)27 b(random)f(binning)1950 3036 y(yields)g(a)h(gain)e(ratio)h(of)g
(approximately)d(1.0)j(for)f(all)i(the)f(test)h(topolo-)1950
3135 y(gies.)44 b(In)27 b(all)g(cases,)h(the)f(performance)d(of)i
(landmark-based)d(binning)1950 3234 y(comes)29 b(close)g(to)g(that)g
(of)g(nearest-neighbor)c(clustering)j(and)g(greatly)1950
3333 y(outperforms)18 b(random)g(binning.)2033 3437 y(In)e(conclusion,)
g(the)h(binning)e(scheme)h(we')l(v)o(e)g(proposed)e(does)j(a)g(rea-)
1950 3536 y(sonable)34 b(job)g(of)g(placing)f(nearby)g(nodes)h(into)g
(the)g(same)h(bin.)67 b(W)-7 b(e)1950 3634 y(no)n(w)29
b(address)h(the)f(more)g(fundamental)f(and)h(important)f(question)h(of)
1950 3733 y(whether)19 b(the)h(binning)f(scheme)h(can)g(be)g(of)g(use)g
(to)g(applications.)2128 3886 y(I)t(I)t(I)t(.)45 b(T)s
Fq(O)t(P)t(O)t(L)t(O)t(G)t(I)t(C)t(A)t(L)t(L)m(Y)l Fp(-)t(A)m
Fq(W)l(A)t(R)t(E)24 b Fp(C)t Fq(O)t(N)t(S)t(T)t(R)q(U)t(C)t(T)t(I)t(O)t
(N)j(O)t(F)2699 3985 y Fp(O)p Fq(V)t(E)t(R)t(L)t(A)m(Y)e
Fp(N)t Fq(E)t(T)t(W)s(O)t(R)t(K)t(S)2033 4130 y Fp(In)c(this)g
(section,)g(we)g(apply)f(our)g(binning)g(scheme)g(to)h(the)g(construc-)
1950 4229 y(tion)32 b(of)g(o)o(v)o(erlay)e(netw)o(orks.)61
b(W)-7 b(e)33 b(focus)f(on)g(tw)o(o)g(types)g(of)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)1950
4328 y(netw)o(orks.)2033 4432 y(The)23 b(\002rst)h(are)f
Fm(structur)m(ed)g Fp(o)o(v)o(erlays)f(wherein)g(nodes)h(are)g
(intercon-)1950 4531 y(nected)28 b(\(at)h(the)g(application-le)n(v)o
(el\))c(in)k(some)g(well-de\002ned)e(manner)-5 b(.)1950
4629 y(A)34 b(number)f(of)g(designs)h(for)f(such)h(structured)f(o)o(v)o
(erlays)f(ha)n(v)o(e)h(been)1950 4728 y(proposed)h(recently)i([4],)j
([3],)h([25],)f([26].)73 b(In)36 b(our)g(w)o(ork,)j(we)e(fo-)1950
4827 y(cus)21 b(on)f(one)g(such)h(system,)g(called)f(a)h
(Content-Addressable)d(Netw)o(ork)1950 4926 y(\(CAN\).)25
b(Our)f(scheme)g(for)g(topologically)f(sensiti)n(v)o(e)i(CAN)g
(construc-)1950 5025 y(tion)31 b(should)e(ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)g(be)i
(applicable)f(to)h(similar)g(systems)g(such)g(as)1950
5123 y(Chord)19 b([3],)h(P)-8 b(ASTR)j(Y)21 b([26])e(and)g(T)-7
b(apestry)20 b([25].)2033 5227 y(The)34 b(second)g(type)h(of)f(o)o(v)o
(erlay)f(netw)o(orks)h(we)h(consider)f(are)g Fm(un-)1950
5326 y(structur)m(ed)19 b Fp(o)o(v)o(erlays.)k(End-system)c(multicast)g
([9],)g([27])f(and)h(Scatter)n(-)1950 5425 y(cast)24
b([28])e(both)g(b)n(uild)h(such)f(unstructured)f(meshes)i(o)o(v)o(er)f
(which)g(mul-)1950 5524 y(ticast)32 b(trees)f(are)g(constructed.)56
b(W)-7 b(e)32 b(study)e(the)h(use)g(of)g(our)f(binning)1950
5622 y(scheme)g(in)h(a)g(generic)f(e)o(xample)f(of)i(an)f(unstructured)
f(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(con-)p eop
%%Page: 5 5
5 4 bop -260 -38 a
 11260863 7769988 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 -260 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/cluster.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Tue Feb  5 12:06:29 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
560 870 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
476 870 M
(1) Rshow
560 1490 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(2) Rshow
560 2110 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(3) Rshow
560 2730 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(4) Rshow
560 3350 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(5) Rshow
560 3970 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(6) Rshow
560 4590 M
63 0 V
6493 0 R
-63 0 V
-6577 0 R
(7) Rshow
1653 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4) Cshow
3838 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8) Cshow
6023 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(12) Cshow
LTb
560 560 M
6556 0 V
0 4340 V
-6556 0 V
560 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Gain Ratio) Cshow
grestore
3838 210 M
(Number of Landmarks) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(Random binning \(all topos\)) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1653 882 M
2185 13 V
2185 25 V
1653 882 Pls
3838 895 Pls
6023 920 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(Clustering TS-1K) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1653 1930 M
3838 3251 L
2185 465 V
1653 1930 Crs
3838 3251 Crs
6023 3716 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(Binning TS-1K) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1653 1688 M
3838 3139 L
2185 434 V
1653 1688 Star
3838 3139 Star
6023 3573 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(Clustering PLRG1) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1653 1211 M
2185 78 V
2185 125 V
1653 1211 Box
3838 1289 Box
6023 1414 Box
6717 4288 Box
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT4
6402 4131 M
(Binning PLRG1) Rshow
6486 4131 M
462 0 V
1653 951 M
2185 297 V
2185 186 V
1653 951 BoxF
3838 1248 BoxF
6023 1434 BoxF
6717 4131 BoxF
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 -260 1169 a Fq(Fig.)24 b(4.)65 b Fs(Comparison)25 b(of)g(dif)o(fer)n
(ent)h(binning)g(tec)o(hniques)-155 1246 y(\(#le)o(vels=1\))1439
110 y
 10032408 5517820 0 0 35390586 19471400 startTexFig
 1439 110 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/overlay.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: overlay.eps
%%Creator: fig2dev Version 3.2 Patchlevel 1
%%CreationDate: Fri Jan 26 14:54:38 2001
%%For: sylvia@numbat.aciri.org (Sylvia Ratnasamy)
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 538 296
%%Pages: 0
%%BeginSetup
%%EndSetup
%%Magnification: 1.0000
%%EndComments
/$F2psDict 200 dict def
$F2psDict begin
$F2psDict /mtrx matrix put
/col-1 {0 setgray} bind def
/col0 {0.000 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col1 {0.000 0.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col2 {0.000 1.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col3 {0.000 1.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col4 {1.000 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col5 {1.000 0.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col6 {1.000 1.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col7 {1.000 1.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col8 {0.000 0.000 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col9 {0.000 0.000 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col10 {0.000 0.000 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col11 {0.530 0.810 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col12 {0.000 0.560 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col13 {0.000 0.690 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col14 {0.000 0.820 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col15 {0.000 0.560 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col16 {0.000 0.690 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col17 {0.000 0.820 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col18 {0.560 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col19 {0.690 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col20 {0.820 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col21 {0.560 0.000 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col22 {0.690 0.000 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col23 {0.820 0.000 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col24 {0.500 0.190 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col25 {0.630 0.250 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col26 {0.750 0.380 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col27 {1.000 0.500 0.500 srgb} bind def
/col28 {1.000 0.630 0.630 srgb} bind def
/col29 {1.000 0.750 0.750 srgb} bind def
/col30 {1.000 0.880 0.880 srgb} bind def
/col31 {1.000 0.840 0.000 srgb} bind def

end
save
-126.0 374.0 translate
1 -1 scale

/cp {closepath} bind def
/ef {eofill} bind def
/gr {grestore} bind def
/gs {gsave} bind def
/sa {save} bind def
/rs {restore} bind def
/l {lineto} bind def
/m {moveto} bind def
/rm {rmoveto} bind def
/n {newpath} bind def
/s {stroke} bind def
/sh {show} bind def
/slc {setlinecap} bind def
/slj {setlinejoin} bind def
/slw {setlinewidth} bind def
/srgb {setrgbcolor} bind def
/rot {rotate} bind def
/sc {scale} bind def
/sd {setdash} bind def
/ff {findfont} bind def
/sf {setfont} bind def
/scf {1.3 mul scalefont} bind def
/sw {stringwidth} bind def
/tr {translate} bind def
/tnt {dup dup currentrgbcolor
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add srgb}
  bind def
/shd {dup dup currentrgbcolor 4 -2 roll mul 4 -2 roll mul
  4 -2 roll mul srgb} bind def
/reencdict 12 dict def /ReEncode { reencdict begin
/newcodesandnames exch def /newfontname exch def /basefontname exch def
/basefontdict basefontname findfont def /newfont basefontdict maxlength dict def
basefontdict { exch dup /FID ne { dup /Encoding eq
{ exch dup length array copy newfont 3 1 roll put }
{ exch newfont 3 1 roll put } ifelse } { pop pop } ifelse } forall
newfont /FontName newfontname put newcodesandnames aload pop
128 1 255 { newfont /Encoding get exch /.notdef put } for
newcodesandnames length 2 idiv { newfont /Encoding get 3 1 roll put } repeat
newfontname newfont definefont pop end } def
/isovec [
8#200 /grave 8#201 /acute 8#202 /circumflex 8#203 /tilde
8#204 /macron 8#205 /breve 8#206 /dotaccent 8#207 /dieresis
8#210 /ring 8#211 /cedilla 8#212 /hungarumlaut 8#213 /ogonek 8#214 /caron
8#220 /dotlessi 8#230 /oe 8#231 /OE
8#240 /space 8#241 /exclamdown 8#242 /cent 8#243 /sterling
8#244 /currency 8#245 /yen 8#246 /brokenbar 8#247 /section 8#250 /dieresis
8#251 /copyright 8#252 /ordfeminine 8#253 /guillemotleft 8#254 /logicalnot
8#255 /endash 8#256 /registered 8#257 /macron 8#260 /degree 8#261 /plusminus
8#262 /twosuperior 8#263 /threesuperior 8#264 /acute 8#265 /mu 8#266 /paragraph
8#267 /periodcentered 8#270 /cedilla 8#271 /onesuperior 8#272 /ordmasculine
8#273 /guillemotright 8#274 /onequarter 8#275 /onehalf
8#276 /threequarters 8#277 /questiondown 8#300 /Agrave 8#301 /Aacute
8#302 /Acircumflex 8#303 /Atilde 8#304 /Adieresis 8#305 /Aring
8#306 /AE 8#307 /Ccedilla 8#310 /Egrave 8#311 /Eacute
8#312 /Ecircumflex 8#313 /Edieresis 8#314 /Igrave 8#315 /Iacute
8#316 /Icircumflex 8#317 /Idieresis 8#320 /Eth 8#321 /Ntilde 8#322 /Ograve
8#323 /Oacute 8#324 /Ocircumflex 8#325 /Otilde 8#326 /Odieresis 8#327 /multiply
8#330 /Oslash 8#331 /Ugrave 8#332 /Uacute 8#333 /Ucircumflex
8#334 /Udieresis 8#335 /Yacute 8#336 /Thorn 8#337 /germandbls 8#340 /agrave
8#341 /aacute 8#342 /acircumflex 8#343 /atilde 8#344 /adieresis 8#345 /aring
8#346 /ae 8#347 /ccedilla 8#350 /egrave 8#351 /eacute
8#352 /ecircumflex 8#353 /edieresis 8#354 /igrave 8#355 /iacute
8#356 /icircumflex 8#357 /idieresis 8#360 /eth 8#361 /ntilde 8#362 /ograve
8#363 /oacute 8#364 /ocircumflex 8#365 /otilde 8#366 /odieresis 8#367 /divide
8#370 /oslash 8#371 /ugrave 8#372 /uacute 8#373 /ucircumflex
8#374 /udieresis 8#375 /yacute 8#376 /thorn 8#377 /ydieresis] def
/Palatino-Bold /Palatino-Bold-iso isovec ReEncode
/Palatino-BoldItalic /Palatino-BoldItalic-iso isovec ReEncode
/$F2psBegin {$F2psDict begin /$F2psEnteredState save def} def
/$F2psEnd {$F2psEnteredState restore end} def
%%EndProlog

$F2psBegin
10 setmiterlimit
n -1000 7225 m -1000 -1000 l 12059 -1000 l 12059 7225 l cp clip
 0.06000 0.06000 sc
/Palatino-BoldItalic-iso ff 240.00 scf sf
4725 6225 m
gs 1 -1 sc (node B's virtual coordinate zone) col0 sh gr
% Polyline
60.000 slw
n 5175 1875 m 9375 1875 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 6619 4816 m 9319 1891 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
7.500 slw
 [135] 0 sd
n 3825 3300 m 8025 3300 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
 [135] 0 sd
n 6900 3300 m 8100 1875 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
60.000 slw
n 2475 4800 m 6675 4800 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
7.500 slw
 [135] 0 sd
n 4425 4800 m 7050 1875 l gs col0 s gr  [] 0 sd
% Polyline
gs  clippath
7402 1684 m 7500 1575 l 7453 1715 l 7533 1577 l 7482 1547 l cp
clip
n 6975 2475 m 7500 1575 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 7402 1684 m 7500 1575 l 7453 1715 l 7440 1679 l 7402 1684 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
% Polyline
gs  clippath
8863 2797 m 9000 2850 l 8853 2856 l 9010 2882 l 9020 2823 l cp
clip
n 8100 2700 m 9000 2850 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 8863 2797 m 9000 2850 l 8853 2856 l 8882 2830 l 8863 2797 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
% Polyline
 [60] 0 sd
gs  clippath
5759 4465 m 5850 4350 l 5812 4492 l 5884 4350 l 5830 4323 l cp
clip
n 5850 5925 m 5849 5924 l 5845 5921 l 5839 5917 l 5830 5910 l 5817 5900 l
 5800 5888 l 5780 5872 l 5757 5854 l 5730 5833 l 5701 5810 l
 5671 5785 l 5640 5759 l 5609 5732 l 5578 5704 l 5549 5676 l
 5522 5648 l 5496 5621 l 5474 5593 l 5454 5566 l 5437 5539 l
 5424 5513 l 5413 5486 l 5406 5458 l 5401 5430 l 5400 5400 l
 5401 5375 l 5404 5348 l 5408 5320 l 5415 5290 l 5424 5257 l
 5435 5223 l 5448 5186 l 5464 5146 l 5481 5104 l 5499 5060 l
 5520 5013 l 5542 4965 l 5565 4915 l 5590 4864 l 5615 4813 l
 5640 4761 l 5665 4710 l 5690 4661 l 5714 4613 l 5737 4569 l
 5758 4527 l 5777 4490 l 5794 4457 l 5809 4428 l 5821 4405 l
 5831 4386 l 5839 4372 l 5850 4350 l gs col0 s gr gr
 [] 0 sd
% arrowhead
n 5759 4465 m 5850 4350 l 5812 4492 l 5796 4457 l 5759 4465 l  cp gs 0.00 setgray ef gr  col0 s
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 210.00 scf sf
5175 4275 m
gs 1 -1 sc (\(0.5-1.0,0.0-0.5\)) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 210.00 scf sf
3375 4275 m
gs 1 -1 sc (0-0.5,0-0.5\)) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 210.00 scf sf
3300 4200 m
gs 1 -1 sc (\() col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 210.00 scf sf
4575 2775 m
gs 1 -1 sc (\(0.0-0.5,0.5,1.0\)) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 210.00 scf sf
9075 3000 m
gs 1 -1 sc (\(0.75-1.0,0.5-1.0\)) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 240.00 scf sf
4725 1875 m
gs 1 -1 sc (1.0) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 240.00 scf sf
2475 5100 m
gs 1 -1 sc (0.0) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 240.00 scf sf
6525 5100 m
gs 1 -1 sc (1.0) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 240.00 scf sf
2100 4725 m
gs 1 -1 sc (0.0) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 270.00 scf sf
4050 3900 m
gs 1 -1 sc (A) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 270.00 scf sf
6000 3975 m
gs 1 -1 sc (B) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 270.00 scf sf
6750 2775 m
gs 1 -1 sc (D) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 270.00 scf sf
7725 2775 m
gs 1 -1 sc (E) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 270.00 scf sf
5250 2475 m
gs 1 -1 sc (C) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold-iso ff 210.00 scf sf
7125 1500 m
gs 1 -1 sc (\(0.5-0.75,0.5-1.0\)) col0 sh gr
% Polyline
60.000 slw
n 2475 4800 m 5175 1875 l gs col0 s gr 
$F2psEnd
rs

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 1426 1032 a Fq(Fig.)c(5.)58 b Fs(Example)23 b(2-d)g(coor)n(dinate)h(o)
o(verlay)g(with)g(5)1530 1109 y(nodes)3090 -15 y
 6824754 7984958 0 0 25325977 29733355 startTexFig
 3090
-15 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/eg-nbrs1.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: eg-nbrs1.eps
%%Creator: fig2dev Version 3.2 Patchlevel 1
%%CreationDate: Sat Jul 28 15:05:26 2001
%%For: sylvia@oblaten.aciri.org (Sylvia Ratnasamy)
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 385 452
%%Pages: 0
%%BeginSetup
%%EndSetup
%%Magnification: 1.0000
%%EndComments
/$F2psDict 200 dict def
$F2psDict begin
$F2psDict /mtrx matrix put
/col-1 {0 setgray} bind def
/col0 {0.000 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col1 {0.000 0.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col2 {0.000 1.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col3 {0.000 1.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col4 {1.000 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col5 {1.000 0.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col6 {1.000 1.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col7 {1.000 1.000 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col8 {0.000 0.000 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col9 {0.000 0.000 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col10 {0.000 0.000 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col11 {0.530 0.810 1.000 srgb} bind def
/col12 {0.000 0.560 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col13 {0.000 0.690 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col14 {0.000 0.820 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col15 {0.000 0.560 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col16 {0.000 0.690 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col17 {0.000 0.820 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col18 {0.560 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col19 {0.690 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col20 {0.820 0.000 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col21 {0.560 0.000 0.560 srgb} bind def
/col22 {0.690 0.000 0.690 srgb} bind def
/col23 {0.820 0.000 0.820 srgb} bind def
/col24 {0.500 0.190 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col25 {0.630 0.250 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col26 {0.750 0.380 0.000 srgb} bind def
/col27 {1.000 0.500 0.500 srgb} bind def
/col28 {1.000 0.630 0.630 srgb} bind def
/col29 {1.000 0.750 0.750 srgb} bind def
/col30 {1.000 0.880 0.880 srgb} bind def
/col31 {1.000 0.840 0.000 srgb} bind def

end
save
-138.0 531.0 translate
1 -1 scale

/cp {closepath} bind def
/ef {eofill} bind def
/gr {grestore} bind def
/gs {gsave} bind def
/sa {save} bind def
/rs {restore} bind def
/l {lineto} bind def
/m {moveto} bind def
/rm {rmoveto} bind def
/n {newpath} bind def
/s {stroke} bind def
/sh {show} bind def
/slc {setlinecap} bind def
/slj {setlinejoin} bind def
/slw {setlinewidth} bind def
/srgb {setrgbcolor} bind def
/rot {rotate} bind def
/sc {scale} bind def
/sd {setdash} bind def
/ff {findfont} bind def
/sf {setfont} bind def
/scf {scalefont} bind def
/sw {stringwidth} bind def
/tr {translate} bind def
/tnt {dup dup currentrgbcolor
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add
  4 -2 roll dup 1 exch sub 3 -1 roll mul add srgb}
  bind def
/shd {dup dup currentrgbcolor 4 -2 roll mul 4 -2 roll mul
  4 -2 roll mul srgb} bind def
/$F2psBegin {$F2psDict begin /$F2psEnteredState save def} def
/$F2psEnd {$F2psEnteredState restore end} def
%%EndProlog

$F2psBegin
10 setmiterlimit
n -1000 9847 m -1000 -1000 l 9705 -1000 l 9705 9847 l cp clip
 0.06000 0.06000 sc
/Palatino-BoldItalic ff 240.00 scf sf
2400 8775 m
gs 1 -1 sc (1's coordinate neighbor set = {2,3,4,5} ) col0 sh gr
% Polyline
7.500 slw
n 5475 1350 m 5475 7350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 3825 1350 m 3825 7350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 7050 1350 m 7050 7350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 2400 4350 m 8625 4350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 2400 2850 m 8625 2850 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 2325 5775 m 8550 5775 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 3150 2850 m 3150 4350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 6300 5775 m 6300 7350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 3150 3600 m 3825 3600 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 3150 5775 m 3150 7350 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
n 2475 6600 m 3150 6600 l gs col0 s gr 
% Polyline
 [60] 0 sd
gs  clippath
6255 4905 m 6225 5025 l 6195 4905 l 6195 5040 l 6255 5040 l cp
clip
n 6225 3975 m 6225 5025 l gs col0 s gr gr
 [] 0 sd
% arrowhead
n 6255 4905 m 6225 5025 l 6195 4905 l  col0 s
% Polyline
 [60] 0 sd
gs  clippath
5945 6503 m 5882 6610 l 5887 6486 l 5849 6616 l 5907 6633 l cp
clip
n 6257 5335 m 5882 6610 l gs col0 s gr gr
 [] 0 sd
% arrowhead
n 5945 6503 m 5882 6610 l 5887 6486 l  col0 s
% Polyline
 [60] 0 sd
gs  clippath
5149 6825 m 5025 6825 l 5134 6767 l 5003 6800 l 5018 6858 l cp
clip
n 5925 6600 m 5025 6825 l gs col0 s gr gr
 [] 0 sd
% arrowhead
n 5149 6825 m 5025 6825 l 5134 6767 l  col0 s
% Polyline
gs  clippath
5834 6934 m 5775 6825 l 5878 6894 l 5787 6794 l 5743 6834 l cp
clip
n 6525 7650 m 5775 6825 l gs col0 s gr gr

% arrowhead
n 5834 6934 m 5775 6825 l 5878 6894 l  col0 s
/Palatino-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
6150 3825 m
gs 1 -1 sc (1) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
7650 3825 m
gs 1 -1 sc (5) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
6225 2325 m
gs 1 -1 sc (2) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
4500 3825 m
gs 1 -1 sc (3) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
4575 2325 m
gs 1 -1 sc (6) col0 sh gr
/Palatino-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
6225 5250 m
gs 1 -1 sc (4) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
4500 6975 m
gs 1 -1 sc (\(x,y\)) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
6675 7725 m
gs 1 -1 sc (sample routing ) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
6675 8025 m
gs 1 -1 sc (path from node 1  ) col0 sh gr
/Times-Bold ff 240.00 scf sf
6675 8325 m
gs 1 -1 sc (to point \(x,y\)) col0 sh gr
% Polyline
30.000 slw
n 2400 1350 m 8625 1350 l 8625 7350 l 2400 7350 l cp gs col0 s gr 
$F2psEnd
rs

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 3166 1220 a Fq(Fig.)16 b(6.)37 b Fs(Example)18 b(2-d)f(space)-260
1341 y Fp(struction.)-177 1441 y(The)22 b(metric)g(we)h(use)f(to)h(e)n
(v)n(aluate)e(our)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)e(construction)h(algo-)-260
1539 y(rithms)f(is)i(the)f(ratio)f(of)g(the)h(a)n(v)o(erage)e(inter)n
(-node)g(latenc)o(y)g(on)i(the)f(o)o(v)o(er)n(-)-260
1638 y(lay)h(netw)o(ork)g(to)g(the)g(a)n(v)o(erage)f(inter)n(-node)g
(latenc)o(y)g(on)h(the)g(underlying)-260 1737 y(IP-le)n(v)o(el)i(netw)o
(ork.)33 b(W)-7 b(e)25 b(call)f(this)g(the)g Fm(latency)f(str)m(etc)o
(h)p Fp(;)i(lo)n(wer)e(v)n(alues)-260 1836 y(of)d(stretch)g(are)g(thus)
g(desirable.)-260 1975 y Fm(A.)41 b(T)-8 b(opolo)o(gically-sensitive)18
b(CAN)k(construction)-177 2113 y Fp(A)27 b(Content-Addressable)d(Netw)o
(ork)i(is)h(an)f(application-le)n(v)o(el)e(net-)-260
2212 y(w)o(ork)j(whose)h(constituent)e(nodes)h(can)h(be)g(thought)e(of)
h(as)h(forming)e(a)-260 2311 y(virtual)e Fl(d)p Fp(-dimensional)f
(Cartesian)h(coordinate)e(space.)38 b(This)24 b(coordi-)-260
2410 y(nate)32 b(space)g(is)h(completely)d(logical)i(and)f(bears)h(no)f
(relation)g(to)i(an)o(y)-260 2509 y(physical)21 b(coordinate)f(system.)
30 b(At)22 b(an)o(y)f(point)h(in)g(time,)g(the)g(entire)f(co-)-260
2607 y(ordinate)16 b(space)i(is)g(dynamically)e(partitioned)f(among)h
(all)i(the)g(nodes)f(in)-260 2706 y(the)26 b(system)f(such)h(that)f(e)n
(v)o(ery)g(node)f(\223o)n(wns\224)h(its)i(indi)n(vidual,)e(distinct)
-260 2805 y(zone)32 b(within)g(the)h(o)o(v)o(erall)e(space.)62
b(F)o(or)32 b(e)o(xample,)i(Figure)e(5)h(sho)n(ws)-260
2904 y(a)26 b(2-dimensional)e Fj([0)p Fl(;)14 b Fj(1])22
b Fb(\002)g Fj([0)p Fl(;)14 b Fj(1])25 b Fp(coordinate)f(space)i
(partitioned)e(be-)-260 3003 y(tween)30 b(5)h(CAN)g(nodes.)494
2972 y Fo(8)584 3003 y Fp(Nodes)f(in)h(the)f(CAN)h(self-or)o(ganize)d
(into)-260 3101 y(an)20 b(o)o(v)o(erlay)e(netw)o(ork)h(that)h
(represents)f(this)h(virtual)f(coordinate)f(space.)-260
3200 y(A)28 b(node)e(learns)h(and)g(maintains)f(as)i(its)g(set)g(of)f
(neighbors)e(the)j(IP)f(ad-)-260 3299 y(dresses)f(of)f(those)f(nodes)h
(that)g(hold)f(coordinate)g(zones)g(adjoining)g(its)-260
3398 y(o)n(wn)f(zone.)35 b(This)24 b(set)h(of)e(immediate)g(neighbors)f
(serv)o(es)i(as)g(a)g(coordi-)-260 3497 y(nate)g(routing)e(table)i
(that)g(enables)f(routing)f(between)h(arbitrary)f(points)-260
3595 y(in)i(the)g(coordinate)e(space.)35 b(Intuiti)n(v)o(ely)-5
b(,)22 b(routing)g(on)i(the)g(CAN)g(w)o(orks)-260 3694
y(by)h(follo)n(wing)f(the)h(straight)g(line)h(path)f(through)e(the)i
(Cartesian)h(space)-260 3793 y(from)16 b(source)h(to)g(destination)f
(coordinates.)22 b(Figure)17 b(6)g(sho)n(ws)g(a)h(sample)-260
3892 y(routing)23 b(path.)36 b(F)o(or)23 b(a)i Fl(d)g
Fp(dimensional)d(space)i(partitioned)e(amongst)h Fl(n)-260
3991 y Fp(nodes,)k(the)g(a)n(v)o(erage)e(routing)g(path)g(length)h(is)h
(thus)g Fl(O)r Fj(\()p Fl(d)p Fj(\()p Fl(n)1535 3960
y Fk(1)p Fc(=d)1642 3991 y Fj(\)\))g Fp(and)-260 4089
y(indi)n(vidual)19 b(nodes)g(maintain)g Fl(O)r Fj(\()p
Fl(d)p Fj(\))k Fp(neighbors.)-177 4189 y(The)g(CAN)h(construction)e
(mechanisms)g(described)g(in)h([4])g(allocate)-260 4288
y(nodes)30 b(to)i(zones)e(at)i(random.)651 4258 y Fo(9)740
4288 y Fp(Thus,)h(a)f(node')-5 b(s)30 b(neighbors)f(on)i(the)-260
4387 y(CAN)k(need)f(not)g(be)g(topologically)e(nearby)h(on)h(the)h
(underlying)c(IP)-260 4485 y(netw)o(ork.)74 b(This)38
b(can)f(lead)f(to)i(inef)n(\002cient)e(routing)f(because)i
Fm(e)o(very)-260 4584 y Fp(application-le)n(v)o(el)19
b(hop)i(on)h(the)g(CAN)g(could)f(potentially)g(be)h(between)-260
4683 y(tw)o(o)f(geographically)c(\(and)i(topologically\))f(distant)i
(nodes.)-177 4783 y(In)33 b(this)h(section,)i(we)e(apply)e(our)h
(binning)f(strate)o(gy)g(to)i(construct)-260 4882 y(CAN)17
b(topologies)e(that)i(are)f(congruent)e(with)j(the)f(underlying)e(IP)j
(topol-)-260 4980 y(ogy)-5 b(.)51 b(Let)29 b(us)h(assume)f(for)f(the)h
(moment)f(that)i(only)e(the)h(ordering)e(of)-260 5079
y(landmarks)c(is)j(used)f(for)f(binning)f(\(the)i(follo)n(wing)e(ideas)
i(can)f(be)h(tri)n(v-)-260 5178 y(ially)e(e)o(xtended)d(to)i(include)f
(le)n(v)o(el)h(v)o(ectors\).)30 b(W)m(ith)23 b Fl(m)f
Fp(landmarks,)f Fl(m)p Fj(!)-207 5300 y Fn(8)-172 5323
y Fq(The)j(description)j(of)d(ho)n(w)h(nodes)f(create)j(and)d(maintain)
j(this)d(structure)j(is)d(not)g(re-)-260 5396 y(quired)i(to)f(follo)n
(w)h(the)g(discussion)g(in)f(this)h(paper)l(.)45 b(CAN)25
b(operation)i(is)e(described)h(in)-260 5469 y(detail)19
b(in)f([4].)-207 5526 y Fn(9)-172 5549 y Fq(W)m(ith)i(the)f(e)o
(xception)j(of)d(Section)i(3.6)d(in)i([4])f(where)h(the)f(idea)h(of)f
(binning)i(is)e(brie\003y)-260 5622 y(introduced)h(as)d(w)o(ork)g(in)g
(progress.)1950 1341 y Fp(such)k(orderings)f(are)i(possible.)28
b(Accordingly)19 b(we)j(partition)f(the)g(coor)n(-)1950
1440 y(dinate)27 b(space)h(into)g Fl(m)p Fj(!)h Fp(equal)e(sized)h
(portions,)g(each)g(corresponding)1950 1538 y(to)d(a)g(single)f
(ordering.)37 b(Our)24 b(current)f(scheme)i(to)f(partition)g(the)h
(space)1950 1637 y(into)19 b Fl(m)p Fj(!)h Fp(portions)f(w)o(orks)g(as)
h(follo)n(ws:)25 b(assuming)19 b(a)h(\002x)o(ed)f(c)o(yclical)g(or)n(-)
1950 1736 y(dering)27 b(of)h(the)g(dimensions)f(\()p
Fm(e)o(.g)o(.)48 b Fp(xyzxyzx...\),)27 b(we)h(\002rst)h(di)n(vide)f
(the)1950 1835 y(space,)f(along)d(the)i(\002rst)g(dimension,)f(into)h
Fl(m)g Fp(portions,)f(each)g(portion)1950 1934 y(is)c(then)e(sub-di)n
(vided)e(along)i(the)h(second)f(dimension)f(into)i Fl(m)d
Fb(\000)f Fj(1)k Fp(por)n(-)1950 2032 y(tions)e(each)g(of)f(which)h(is)
h(further)d(di)n(vided)h(into)h Fl(m)10 b Fb(\000)g Fj(2)18
b Fp(portions)f(and)g(so)1950 2131 y(on.)40 b(Pre)n(viously)-5
b(,)24 b(a)i(ne)n(w)f(node)f(joined)h(the)g(CAN)h(at)g(a)g(random)d
(point)1950 2230 y(in)i(the)g(entire)f(coordinate)f(space.)39
b(No)n(w)-5 b(,)26 b(at)f(join)g(time,)h(a)f(CAN)h(node)1950
2329 y(must)c(\002rst)h(bin)f(itself,)g Fm(i.e)o(.)31
b Fp(based)22 b(on)f(its)i(delay)f(measurements)e(to)j(the)1950
2428 y(set)i(of)e(landmarks,)g(each)g(node)g(determines)f(its)j
(associated)f(bin.)35 b(The)1950 2526 y(ne)n(w)23 b(node)f(then)h
(joins)g(the)g(CAN)h(at)f(a)h(random)d(point)i(in)g(that)g(portion)1950
2625 y(of)d(the)g(coordinate)e(space)i(associated)g(with)h(its)g
(landmark)d(ordering.)2033 2741 y(A)26 b(consequence)e(of)i(the)g(abo)o
(v)o(e)e(construction)g(scheme)i(is)g(that)h(the)1950
2839 y(coordinate)32 b(space)h(is)i(no)e(longer)f(uniformly)f
(populated.)63 b(Because)1950 2938 y(some)32 b(bins)f(are)h(more)f
(highly)g(populated)f(than)h(others)g(their)h(corre-)1950
3037 y(sponding)17 b(portions)g(of)h(the)g(coordinate)f(space)h(are)h
(also)g(more)e(densely)1950 3136 y(occupied)30 b(than)i(others)f
(leading)g(to)h(an)f(une)n(v)o(en)f(distrib)n(ution)h(of)h(the)1950
3235 y(size)25 b(of)f(zone)f(spaces)i(amongst)e(the)h(nodes.)37
b(Thus)24 b(some)g(nodes)f(hold)1950 3333 y(much)17 b(lar)o(ger)g
(coordinate)f(zones)h(that)h(others.)24 b(W)-7 b(e)19
b(defer)e(this)h(problem)1950 3432 y(of)23 b(achie)n(ving)f(While)i(we)
g(belie)n(v)o(e)f(the)g(use)h(of)g(background)c(load)j(bal-)1950
3531 y(ancing)f(techniques)h(\(described)e(in)j([4]\))f(where)g(an)g(o)
o(v)o(erloaded)e(node)1950 3630 y(hands)31 b(of)n(f)g(a)h(portion)e(of)
h(its)i(space)e(to)h(a)g(more)f(lightly)g(loaded)f(one)1950
3729 y(might)24 b(be)g(used)g(to)g(alle)n(viate)g(this)h(problem,)e(we)
i(do)f(not)f(e)o(xplore)g(this)1950 3827 y(question)c(further)g(in)h
(this)h(paper)e(and)h(defer)f(it)i(to)f(future)f(w)o(ork.)2033
3943 y(A)j(subtle)f(side-ef)n(fect)f(of)h(the)g(une)n(v)o(en)f
(partitioning)f(of)i(the)g(space)h(is)1950 4042 y(that)e(the)f(a)n(v)o
(erage)g(number)e(of)j(hops)f(on)g(the)g(path)g(between)g(tw)o(o)h
(points)1950 4141 y(in)c(the)h(CAN)g(space)f(decreases.)23
b(This)17 b(is)g(because)e(a)i(single)f(node)f(might)1950
4239 y(o)n(wn)20 b(a)g(a)h(disproportionately)16 b(lar)o(ge)j(zone.)25
b(Such)19 b(a)i(node)e(thus)h(has)h(the)1950 4338 y(ability)c(to)h
(cross)g(a)g(lar)o(ge)f(portion)f(of)i(the)f(coordinate)f(space)i(in)g
(a)g(single)1950 4437 y(hop)j(leading)f(to)i(shorter)e(paths)i(than)f
(w)o(ould)f(be)i(the)f(case)h(if)g(the)g(space)1950 4536
y(were)31 b(uniformly)e(partitioned.)56 b(This)31 b(reduced)e(path)i
(length)f(in)h(turn)1950 4634 y(leads)24 b(to)g(lo)n(wer)f(a)n(v)o
(erage)f(CAN)j(path)e(latencies)h(because)f(\(CAN)h(path)1950
4733 y(latenc)o(y\))19 b Fj(=)h Fp(\(#hops\))e Fb(\002)i
Fp(\(latenc)o(y)f(of)g(each)h(hop\).)j(In)d(order)f(to)h(not)g(tak)o(e)
1950 4832 y(adv)n(antage)30 b(of)h(this)h(reduced)e(CAN)i(latenc)o(y)f
(caused)g(by)g(an)h(une)n(v)o(en)1950 4931 y(partitioning)d(of)h(the)h
(space,)h(we)f(calculate)g(the)f(a)n(v)o(erage)g(CAN)h(path)1950
5030 y(latenc)o(y)19 b(using)f(binning-based)f(construction)g(as)k
(follo)n(ws:)j(for)19 b(a)h(CAN)1950 5128 y(with)k(binning-based)d
(construction,)h(we)i(di)n(vide)f(the)h(path)f(latenc)o(y)g(by)1950
5227 y(the)32 b(number)f(of)h(hops)g(on)g(the)g(pathm)f(to)i(get)f(the)
h(per)n(-hop)d(latenc)o(y)-5 b(.)1950 5326 y(W)e(e)31
b(then)e(multiply)g(this)h(per)n(-hop)d(latenc)o(y)i(by)g(the)h(a)n(v)o
(erage)e(number)1950 5425 y(of)20 b(hops)h(on)f(the)h(randomly)d
(constructed)h(CAN)j(\(for)e(which)g(the)h(space)1950
5524 y(is)h(e)n(v)o(enly)e(partitioned\).)26 b(This)21
b(gi)n(v)o(es)g(us)g(the)h(path)e(latenc)o(y)h(for)f(a)i(CAN)1950
5622 y(with)c(binning)e(based)h(construction)f(without)h(taking)f(adv)n
(antage)g(of)i(the)p eop
%%Page: 6 6
6 5 bop -208 -38 a
 15560190 10736523 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 -208 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/can-ts-lm.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Tue Jul 24 21:34:58 2001
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
644 560 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
560 560 M
(5) Rshow
644 994 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
560 994 M
(10) Rshow
644 1428 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(15) Rshow
644 1862 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(20) Rshow
644 2296 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(25) Rshow
644 2730 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(30) Rshow
644 3164 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(35) Rshow
644 3598 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(40) Rshow
644 4032 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(45) Rshow
644 4466 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(50) Rshow
644 4900 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(55) Rshow
1142 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(512) Cshow
2138 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(1K) Cshow
3133 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(2K) Cshow
4129 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4K) Cshow
5125 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8K) Cshow
6120 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(16K) Cshow
LTb
644 560 M
6472 0 V
0 4340 V
-6472 0 V
644 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Latency Stretch) Cshow
grestore
3880 210 M
(Number of Overlay Nodes) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(Random) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1142 1010 M
996 294 V
995 541 V
996 581 V
996 1085 V
995 1094 V
1142 1010 Pls
2138 1304 Pls
3133 1845 Pls
4129 2426 Pls
5125 3511 Pls
6120 4605 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(#landmarks=4) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1142 694 M
996 153 V
995 222 V
996 290 V
996 390 V
995 599 V
1142 694 Crs
2138 847 Crs
3133 1069 Crs
4129 1359 Crs
5125 1749 Crs
6120 2348 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(#landmarks=8) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1142 629 M
996 112 V
995 192 V
996 191 V
996 313 V
995 277 V
1142 629 Star
2138 741 Star
3133 933 Star
4129 1124 Star
5125 1437 Star
6120 1714 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(#landmarks=12) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1142 630 M
996 121 V
995 164 V
996 181 V
996 289 V
995 269 V
1142 630 Box
2138 751 Box
3133 915 Box
4129 1096 Box
5125 1385 Box
6120 1654 Box
6717 4288 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 -141 1545 a Fq(Fig.)17 b(7.)37 b Fs(Str)n(etc)o(h)18
b(for)f(a)g(2-dimensional)j(CAN;)d(topolo)o(gy)i(TS-1K;)f(#le)o(vels=1)
2040 -38 y
 15560190 10736523 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 2040 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/can-plrg-lm.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Thu Jul 26 17:47:35 2001
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
644 560 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
560 560 M
(5) Rshow
644 1042 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(10) Rshow
644 1524 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(15) Rshow
644 2007 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(20) Rshow
644 2489 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(25) Rshow
644 2971 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(30) Rshow
644 3453 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(35) Rshow
644 3936 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(40) Rshow
644 4418 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(45) Rshow
644 4900 M
63 0 V
6409 0 R
-63 0 V
-6493 0 R
(50) Rshow
1142 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(512) Cshow
2138 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(1K) Cshow
3133 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(2K) Cshow
4129 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4K) Cshow
5125 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8K) Cshow
6120 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(16K) Cshow
LTb
644 560 M
6472 0 V
0 4340 V
-6472 0 V
644 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Latency Stretch) Cshow
grestore
3880 210 M
(Number of Overlay Nodes) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(Random) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1142 1052 M
996 260 V
995 608 V
996 627 V
996 1186 V
995 984 V
1142 1052 Pls
2138 1312 Pls
3133 1920 Pls
4129 2547 Pls
5125 3733 Pls
6120 4717 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(#landmarks=4) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1142 945 M
996 329 V
995 498 V
996 601 V
996 955 V
995 1177 V
1142 945 Crs
2138 1274 Crs
3133 1772 Crs
4129 2373 Crs
5125 3328 Crs
6120 4505 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(#landmarks=8) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1142 928 M
996 307 V
995 405 V
996 453 V
996 772 V
995 675 V
1142 928 Star
2138 1235 Star
3133 1640 Star
4129 2093 Star
5125 2865 Star
6120 3540 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(#landmarks=12) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1142 932 M
996 255 V
995 415 V
996 414 V
996 721 V
995 668 V
1142 932 Box
2138 1187 Box
3133 1602 Box
4129 2016 Box
5125 2737 Box
6120 3405 Box
6717 4288 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 2092 1545 a Fq(Fig.)f(8.)37 b Fs(Str)n(etc)o(h)18 b(for)g(a)e
(2-dimensional)k(CAN;)d(topolo)o(gy)i(PLRG2;)d(#le)o(vels=1)p
117 1563 1359 4 v 115 1662 4 99 v 271 1632 a Fp(Construction)p
853 1662 V 202 w(Latenc)o(y)j(Stretch)p 1474 1662 V 117
1665 1359 4 v 117 1682 V 115 1780 4 99 v 345 1751 a(Random)p
853 1780 V 464 w(4.44)p 1474 1780 V 115 1879 V 167 1850
a(Bin,)i(#landmarks=2)p 853 1879 V 284 w(4.33)p 1474
1879 V 115 1978 V 167 1948 a(Bin,)g(#landmarks=3)p 853
1978 V 305 w(3.9)p 1474 1978 V 115 2077 V 167 2047 a(Bin,)g
(#landmarks=4)p 853 2077 V 305 w(3.2)p 1474 2077 V 115
2176 V 167 2146 a(Bin,)g(#landmarks=5)p 853 2176 V 305
w(3.1)p 1474 2176 V 117 2179 1359 4 v 673 2281 a Fq(T)-6
b(ABLE)16 b(I)170 2380 y Fs(Str)n(etc)o(h)j(on)e(a)g(2-d)g(CAN)f(using)
i(NLANR;)e(#le)o(vels=1)-260 2593 y Fp(une)n(v)o(en)22
b(space)h(distrib)n(ution.)613 2563 y Fo(10)708 2593
y Fp(Finally)-5 b(,)24 b(we)g(di)n(vide)e(this)i(by)f(the)g(path)-260
2692 y(latenc)o(y)c(on)h(the)h(underlying)c(IP-le)n(v)o(el)j(netw)o
(ork)f(to)h(obtain)f(the)i(latenc)o(y)-260 2791 y(stretch.)-177
2897 y(Figure)d(7)g(plots)h(the)f(CAN)h(latenc)o(y)f(stretch)g
(\(de\002ned)f(abo)o(v)o(e\))f(for)i(in-)-260 2996 y(creasing)i(CAN)h
(sizes,)h Fm(i.e)o(.)k Fp(for)20 b(increasing)f(numbers)g(of)h(CAN)i
(nodes.)-260 3095 y(W)-7 b(e)19 b(use)e(topology)e(TS-1K)i(and)g(scale)
h(the)f(CAN)h(size)g(by)f(adding)f(CAN)-260 3193 y(nodes)25
b(to)h(the)f(stub)g(\(leaf\))g(nodes)g(in)h(the)f(underlying)e
(topology)-5 b(.)38 b(The)-260 3292 y(delay)32 b(of)h(the)g(link)g
(from)f(the)h(end-host)e(node)h(to)h(the)g(stub)g(node)f(is)-260
3391 y(set)g(to)g(1ms.)58 b(Thus,)33 b(in)e(scaling)g(the)g(CAN)h(size)
g(from)f(512)f(to)h(16K)-260 3490 y(nodes,)i(we')l(re)e(scaling)g(the)g
(density)g(of)f(the)i(graph)d(without)i(scaling)-260
3589 y(the)d(backbone)d(\(transit\))i(domain.)45 b(Figure)27
b(7)h(compares)e(the)i(latenc)o(y)-260 3687 y(stretch)g(for)g(randomly)
e(constructed)h(CANs)j(\(where)d(nodes)h(join)g(the)-260
3786 y(CAN)34 b(at)f(a)h(random)d(point)h(in)h(the)g(space,)i(as)f
(described)e(in)h([4]\))f(to)-260 3885 y(the)d(stretch)f(using)g(the)h
(binning-based)c(CAN)30 b(construction)c(scheme)-260
3984 y(outline)h(abo)o(v)o(e.)45 b(W)-7 b(e)28 b(see)g(that)g
(binning-based)c(construction)i(greatly)-260 4083 y(lo)n(wers)21
b(the)g(stretch.)28 b(Also,)21 b(as)h(e)o(xpected,)e(with)h(more)f
(landmarks,)g(the)-260 4181 y(binning)f(is)i(more)e(accurate)g(and)h
(the)g(stretch)g(decreases)g(further)-5 b(.)1667 4151
y Fo(11)-177 4439 y Fp(Figure)24 b(8)g(repeats)g(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)e
(test)j(for)e(topology)f(PLRG2.)37 b(As)25 b(be-)-260
4538 y(fore,)15 b(the)h(CAN)g(size)g(is)g(scaled)g(by)f(scaling)g(the)g
(density)g(of)g(CAN)h(nodes)-260 4637 y(attached)f(to)h(underlying)d
(topology)h(nodes.)22 b(Again,)16 b(we)g(are)g(not)f(sure)h(to)-260
4736 y(what)i(e)o(xtent)g(the)g(random)f(assignment)g(of)h(link)g
(delays)g(af)n(fects)g(our)g(re-)-260 4834 y(sults)g(for)e(PLRGs.)25
b(T)-7 b(able)17 b(I)h(lists)g(the)f(stretch)g(for)f(a)i(100)e(node)g
(CAN)i(us-)-260 4933 y(ing)g(the)h(NLANR)g(data)f(set.)25
b(Because)19 b(the)f(NLANR)h(data)g(set)g(has)g(only)-207
5081 y Fn(10)-142 5104 y Fq(W)-5 b(e)14 b(wish)g(to)g(stress)g(that)h
(this)g(adjustment)h(actually)g(mak)o(es)f(our)f(results)h(look)g(w)o
(orse.)-207 5161 y Fn(11)-142 5184 y Fq(While)24 b(the)f(absolute)h(v)n
(alue)g(of)e(the)h(stretch)h(appears)g(high,)g(this)f(is)f(primarily)i
(be-)-260 5257 y(cause)16 b(we)g(are)f(using)h(a)f(CAN)g(with)h(only)g
(tw)o(o)g(dimensions.)21 b(Increasing)c(the)f(dimension-)-260
5330 y(ality)k(of)e(the)h(CAN)e(space)j(greatly)g(reduces)f(the)g
(stretch)g(for)g(all)g(construction)i(schemes.)-260 5403
y(In)i([4],)g(we)f(also)h(mak)o(e)h(use)e(of)h(a)f(number)h(of)f
(heuristic)j(techniques)g(to)e(further)h(lo)n(wer)-260
5476 y(the)h(latenc)o(y)l(.)44 b(These)25 b(techniques)i(ho)n(we)n(v)o
(er)m(,)h(are)d(CAN-speci\002c)h(and)e(not)h(rele)n(v)n(ant)i(to)-260
5549 y(this)20 b(paper)l(.)29 b(W)-5 b(e)18 b(thus)i(do)f(not)h(mak)o
(e)g(use)f(of)g(them)h(in)f(this)h(paper)g(so)f(that)h(we)g(can)g(more)
-260 5622 y(clearly)f(e)o(xpose)g(the)e(performance)j(gains)d(caused)h
(by)f(binning)i(alone.)1950 1643 y Fp(103)h(nodes,)f(we)i(cannot)e(e)o
(xperiment)f(with)j(increasing)e(CAN)i(sizes)h(as)1950
1741 y(we)f(did)e(for)h(TS)h(and)e(PLRG.)1950 1898 y
Fm(B.)41 b(T)-8 b(opolo)o(gically-awar)m(e)18 b(construction)h(of)h
(unstructur)m(ed)f(o)o(verlays)2033 2047 y Fp(The)27
b(pre)n(vious)f(discussion)h(applied)g(to)g(the)h(class)g(of)f
(\224structured\224)1950 2145 y(o)o(v)o(erlays)33 b(\(such)i(as)g(CAN,)
h(Chord,)h(P)o(astry)-5 b(,)38 b(T)-7 b(apestry\).)69
b(Ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m(,)1950 2244 y(man)o(y)24 b(deplo)o(yed)g(o)o(v)o
(erlays)g(\(such)h(as)h(Gnutella,)h(FreeNet\))e(are)h(much)1950
2343 y(less)20 b(structured.)j(W)-7 b(e)19 b(no)n(w)f(ask)h(whether)e
(our)h(topological)f(hints)i(could)1950 2442 y(be)j(of)g(use)h(in)f
(the)h(construction)d(of)i(these)h(unstructured)d(o)o(v)o(erlays.)29
b(T)-7 b(o)1950 2541 y(study)28 b(this)g(question)f(we)i(chose)f(to)g
(not)g(focus)f(on)h(an)o(y)f(one)h(particu-)1950 2639
y(lar)22 b(e)o(xisting)g(o)o(v)o(erlay)e(problem)g(and)i(instead)g
(consider)f(the)h(follo)n(wing)1950 2738 y(more)d(general)g(one:)2033
2843 y Fm(Given)j(a)h(set)h(of)e Fl(n)i Fm(nodes)d(on)i(the)f
(Internet,)h(have)f(eac)o(h)f(node)h(pic)n(ks)1950 2942
y(any)g Fl(k)27 b Fm(neighbor)21 b(nodes)h(fr)l(om)h(this)h(set,)g(so)f
(that)f(the)h(aver)o(a)o(g)o(e)f(r)l(outing)1950 3041
y(latency)h(on)h(the)g(r)m(esultant)g(o)o(verlay)f(is)i(low)g
(\(assuming)e(shortest)h(path)1950 3140 y(r)l(outing\).)2033
3245 y Fp(Ev)o(en)30 b(under)f(the)i(assumption)e(of)h(global)g(kno)n
(wledge)f(of)h(the)h(IP-)1950 3344 y(le)n(v)o(el)21 b(latencies)g
(between)g(e)n(v)o(ery)f(possible)h(pair)g(of)g(nodes)g(\()p
Fm(i.e)o(.)28 b Fp(the)21 b Fl(n)4026 3314 y Fk(2)1950
3443 y Fp(distance)26 b(matrix\),)g(the)g(problem)f(of)g(constructing)g
(an)h(optimal)f(o)o(v)o(er)n(-)1950 3541 y(lay)35 b(is)h(kno)n(wn)d(to)
i(be)g(NP-hard)e([29],)38 b([28].)67 b(Because)35 b(we)g(do)g(not)1950
3640 y(ha)n(v)o(e)24 b(an)h(optimal)f(construction)e(algorithm,)i(we)h
(e)o(xperimented)d(with)1950 3739 y(a)30 b(number)e(of)h(dif)n(ferent)f
(heuristic)h(algorithms)f(and)h(found)f(one)g(that)1950
3838 y(appears)g(to)h(consistently)f(perform)f(well.)52
b(Our)29 b(heuristic)f(algorithm)1950 3937 y(w)o(orks)e(as)i(follo)n
(ws:)38 b(a)27 b(node)f(picks)h(its)h Fl(k)i Fp(neighbors)25
b(by)h(picking)g(the)1950 4035 y Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)c Fp(nodes)h(in)g(the)
g(system)g(closest)h(to)f(itself)h(\(we)f(call)g(these)g(connec-)1950
4134 y(tions)k Fm(short)g(links)p Fp(\))g(and)f(then)g(picks)h(another)
e Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)h Fp(nodes)g(at)h(random)1950 4233
y(\(we)g(call)g(these)g Fm(long)g(links)p Fp(\).)45 b(Our)26
b(intuition)g(in)h(de)n(vising)f(the)h(abo)o(v)o(e)1950
4332 y(algorithm)h(w)o(as)i(that)f(the)h Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)f
Fp(connections)e(to)j(closeby)e(nodes)h(will)1950 4431
y(result)19 b(in)g(well-connected)d(pock)o(ets)j(of)f(nearby)f(nodes,)i
(while)f(the)h(ran-)1950 4529 y(dom)e(links)i(serv)o(e)e(to)i(k)o(eep)e
(the)i(graph)d(connected)h(and)g(to)i(interconnect)1950
4628 y(these)29 b(dif)n(ferent)d(pock)o(ets)i(of)g(nodes.)49
b(Shortest)29 b(path)f(routing)e(on)j(the)1950 4727 y(resultant)21
b(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(might)h(then)g(in)m(v)n(olv)o(e)f(a)i(series)g(of)f
(short)h(hops)f(from)1950 4826 y(the)27 b(source)g(node)f(to)h(a)h
(close-by)e(node)g(which)h(has)g(a)h(long)e(link)h(to)g(a)1950
4925 y(node)17 b(in)i(the)f(vicinity)g(of)g(the)h(destination)e(node)g
(and)h(from)g(there)g(again)1950 5023 y(taking)f(a)h(series)g(of)g
(short)f(hops)g(to)h(the)g(destination)f(node.)23 b(W)-7
b(e)19 b(call)f(this)1950 5122 y(algorithm)h Fm(Short-Long)p
Fp(.)2033 5227 y(Short-Long)f(does)i(not)h(scale)g(because)f(a)h(node)f
(w)o(ould)f(need)h(global)1950 5326 y(kno)n(wledge)h(of)j(all)g(other)e
(nodes)h(in)h(the)f(system)h(in)g(order)e(to)i(pick)f(the)1950
5425 y Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)h Fp(closest)i(to)f(itself.)39
b(W)-7 b(e)26 b(no)n(w)e(ask)h(ho)n(w)f(we)i(can)e(use)h(our)f(binning)
1950 5524 y(technique)f(to)h(mak)o(e)g(this)h(Short-Long)d
(construction)g(more)i(scalable,)1950 5622 y(b)n(ut)k(still)i(retain)e
(its)h(e)o(xcellent)e(performance)e(properties.)48 b(W)-7
b(e)29 b(do)f(so)p eop
%%Page: 7 7
7 6 bop -68 -38 a
 13649247 9417972 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 -68 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/gnut_ts10k.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Tue Feb  5 15:08:33 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
728 560 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 560 M
(2) Rshow
728 1283 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(2.5) Rshow
728 2007 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(3) Rshow
728 2730 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(3.5) Rshow
728 3453 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(4) Rshow
728 4177 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(4.5) Rshow
728 4900 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(5) Rshow
1219 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(100) Cshow
2202 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(200) Cshow
3185 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(400) Cshow
4168 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(800) Cshow
5150 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(1600) Cshow
6133 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(3200) Cshow
7116 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(6400) Cshow
LTb
728 560 M
6388 0 V
0 4340 V
-6388 0 V
728 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Latency Stretch) Cshow
grestore
3922 210 M
(Number of Overlay Nodes) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(Random) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1219 1211 M
983 506 V
983 579 V
983 434 V
982 506 V
983 550 V
983 506 V
1219 1211 Pls
2202 1717 Pls
3185 2296 Pls
4168 2730 Pls
5150 3236 Pls
6133 3786 Pls
7116 4292 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(Short-Long) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1219 632 M
983 333 V
983 318 V
983 319 V
982 289 V
983 231 V
983 174 V
1219 632 Crs
2202 965 Crs
3185 1283 Crs
4168 1602 Crs
5150 1891 Crs
6133 2122 Crs
7116 2296 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(BinShort-Long) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1219 1254 M
983 463 V
983 449 V
983 217 V
982 173 V
983 125 V
983 223 V
1219 1254 Star
2202 1717 Star
3185 2166 Star
4168 2383 Star
5150 2556 Star
6133 2681 Star
7116 2904 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(BinShort-Long w/ Sampling) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1219 1153 M
983 405 V
983 376 V
983 174 V
982 43 V
983 174 V
983 19 V
1219 1153 Box
2202 1558 Box
3185 1934 Box
4168 2108 Box
5150 2151 Box
6133 2325 Box
7116 2344 Box
6717 4288 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 -123 1378 a Fq(Fig.)17 b(9.)37 b Fs(Unstructur)n(ed)18
b(Overlays;)h(TS-10K;)e(#le)o(vels=1;)j(#landmarks=12)-260
1476 y Fp(by)g(using)h(our)f(binning)f(scheme)h(to)h(to)g(approximate)d
(picking)i(the)g Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)-260 1574 y Fp(closest)f(nodes.)k(No)n
(w)-5 b(,)18 b(a)g(node)f(picks)h Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)g Fp(neighbors)e(at)i
(random)f(from)-260 1673 y(its)25 b(o)n(wn)e(bin)g(and,)h(as)g(before,)
f(picks)h(the)g(remaining)d Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)j Fp(at)g(random.)-260
1772 y(W)-7 b(e)28 b(call)f(this)h(binning-based)23 b(approximation)h
(algorithm)h Fm(BinShort-)-260 1871 y(Long)p Fp(.)61
b(If)32 b(a)h(node')-5 b(s)31 b(bin)h(is)i(not)e(lar)o(ge)f(enough)f
(for)i(it)h(to)f(pick)g Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)-260 1970 y Fp(neighbors,)22
b(it)i(picks)f(the)g(required)f(number)f(of)i(neighbors)f(from)g(bins)
-260 2068 y(that)28 b(are)g(most)g(similar)g(to)g(its)h(o)n(wn)e(bin)g
(where)h(the)f(de)o(gree)g(of)g(simi-)-260 2167 y(larity)f(beteen)f(tw)
o(o)h(bins)g(is)h(the)f(number)f(of)g(positions)h(in)g(their)g(land-)
-260 2266 y(mark)31 b(orderings)f(on)h(which)h(the)o(y)f(match.)59
b(Figure)31 b(9)h(plots)g(the)g(a)n(v-)-260 2365 y(erage)f(latenc)o(y)f
(stretch)475 2335 y Fo(12)569 2365 y Fp(for)h(increasing)f(system)h
(sizes)h(for)f(topol-)-260 2464 y(ogy)20 b(TS-10K.)f(W)-7
b(e)21 b(compare)e(Short-Long,)e(BinShort-Long)h(and)h(ran-)-260
2562 y(domly)h(constructed)g(o)o(v)o(erlays)f(where)i(each)g(node)f
(picks)h Fl(k)k Fp(neighbors)-260 2661 y(at)16 b(random.)22
b(Note)16 b(the)g(dif)n(ference)d(in)j(scaling)g(beha)n(vior)e(between)
h(Ran-)-260 2760 y(dom)24 b(and)h(Short-Long.)37 b(W)-7
b(e)26 b(also)f(see)h(that)f(BinShort-Long)d(follo)n(ws)-260
2859 y(the)33 b(scaling)g(beha)n(vior)f(of)h(Short-Long.)61
b(Thus)33 b(our)g(binning-based)-260 2958 y(algorithm)26
b(tracks)i(the)g(scaling)f(beha)n(vior)f(of)i(the)g(global-kno)n
(wledge)-260 3056 y(heuristic)33 b(algorithm.)62 b(Although)32
b(the)h(scaling)g(beha)n(vior)f(of)h(Short-)-260 3155
y(Long)16 b(and)h(BinShort-Long)d(is)k(similar)m(,)f(there)g(appears)f
(to)h(be)g(a)h(consis-)-260 3254 y(tent)g(performance)c(gap)i(between)h
(the)g(tw)o(o.)25 b(T)-7 b(o)17 b(better)g(understand)e(this)-260
3353 y(performance)f(gap,)i(we)h(e)o(xperimented)d(with)j(the)f(follo)n
(wing)f(v)n(ariant)h(of)-260 3452 y(BinShort-Long:)31
b(rather)23 b(than)h(pick)f Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)h Fp(nodes)g(at)g(random)f
(from)g(its)-260 3550 y(bin,)c(a)g(node)f(measures)g(its)i(R)-5
b(TT)20 b(to)f(a)g(sample)g(set)g(of)g(nodes)f(in)h(its)h(o)n(wn)-260
3649 y(bin)28 b(and)f(picks)h(the)g Fl(k)s(=)p Fj(2)g
Fp(closest)g(of)g(the)g(sampled)g(nodes.)47 b(Figure)28
b(9)-260 3748 y(sho)n(ws)21 b(once)g(such)g(case)h(\(labelled)e
(\223BinShort-Long)f(w/)i(sampling\224\).)-260 3847 y(W)-7
b(e)20 b(see)g(that)f(with)g(sampling,)f(the)h(performance)d(gap)i
(between)h(Short-)-260 3946 y(Long)27 b(and)g(BinShort-Long)e
(decreases)i(indicating)f(that)i(for)f(a)h(gi)n(v)o(en)-260
4044 y(node,)20 b(the)h(nodes)f(in)h(its)h(o)n(wn)e(bin)h(are)f(indeed)
g(a)h(good)f(approximation)-260 4143 y(of)g(the)g(nodes)g(closest)g(to)
h(it)g(in)f(the)g(entire)g(system.)-177 4252 y(Our)h(aim)g(in)g(going)e
(through)g(the)i(discussion)f(in)h(this)h(section)e(is)i(not)-260
4351 y(to)31 b(claim)f(that)g(either)g(Short-Long)e(or)i(BinShort-Long)
d(is)k(the)g(ideal)-260 4450 y(algorithm)f(for)g(constructing)f
(unstructured)g(o)o(v)o(erlays.)55 b(Rather)m(,)33 b(our)-260
4549 y(point)h(w)o(as)h(to)g(demonstrate)e(that)i(if)f(someone)g(were)g
(to)h(de)n(v)o(elop)d(a)-260 4647 y(good)14 b(o)o(v)o(erlay)g
(construction)f(algorithm)h(that)i(required)e(global)g(relati)n(v)o(e)
-260 4746 y(proximity)32 b(information,)j(then)e(binning)f(\(and)h
(probably)f(an)o(y)h(other)-260 4845 y(similar)m(,)24
b(scalable,)f(proximity)f(inference)f(scheme\))i(of)n(fers)f(a)i
(scalable)-260 4944 y(and)c(accurate)f(w)o(ay)h(of)g(approximating)d
(this)k(global)e(information.)-90 5113 y(I)t(V)-7 b(.)45
b(T)s Fq(O)t(P)t(O)t(L)t(O)t(G)t(I)t(C)t(A)t(L)t(L)m(Y)l
Fp(-)t(A)m Fq(W)l(A)t(R)t(E)25 b Fp(S)t Fq(E)t(R)o(V)t(E)t(R)g
Fp(S)t Fq(E)t(L)t(E)t(C)t(T)t(I)t(O)t(N)-177 5269 y Fp(The)h
(replication)f(of)h(content)g(o)o(v)o(er)f(the)h(Internet)f(gi)n(v)o
(es)h(rise)h(to)g(the)-260 5367 y(problem)32 b(of)g(serv)o(er)h
(selection,)j Fm(i.e)o(.)64 b Fp(from)32 b(which)g(of)h(the)g(multiple)
-207 5526 y Fn(12)-142 5549 y Fq(Calculated)20 b(as)c(the)i(ratio)f(of)
f(the)h(path)h(latenc)o(y)g(using)f(shortest)h(path)f(routing)h(on)e
(the)-260 5622 y(o)o(v)o(erlay)j(to)e(the)h(path)g(latenc)o(y)h(on)e
(the)h(underlying)i(netw)o(ork)e(topology)l(.)1950 -46
y Fp(serv)o(ers)j(holding)f(a)i(gi)n(v)o(en)f(data)g(object)h(should)e
(a)j(client)e(attempt)h(a)g(re-)1950 52 y(trie)n(v)n(al)e(?)2033
159 y(While)e(man)o(y)e(parameters)g(might)h(be)g(used)h(to)f(select)h
(a)g(good)e(serv)o(er)m(,)1950 258 y(the)28 b(most)g(frequently)e
(mentioned)g(parameters)h(are)g(serv)o(er)h(load)f(and)1950
357 y(distance)20 b(\()p Fm(i.e)o(.)25 b Fp(netw)o(ork)19
b(latenc)o(y\))g(from)h(the)g(client.)25 b(In)c(this)f(paper)m(,)f(we)
1950 455 y(focus)e(only)h(on)f(the)i(distance)e(parameter)g(and)g
(de\002ne)h(a)g(good)f(serv)o(er)g(to)1950 554 y(be)24
b(one)g(that)g(is)i(close)e(to)h(the)f(client.)37 b(In)24
b(this)h(section,)g(we)g(describe)e(a)1950 653 y(scheme)d(for)f(serv)o
(er)h(selection)g(based)f(on)h(distrib)n(uted)f(binning.)2033
760 y(Gi)n(v)o(en)k(the)g(client)g(and)g(serv)o(er)g(bins,)h(the)f
(serv)o(er)g(selection)g(process)1950 858 y(w)o(orks)d(as)h(follo)n
(ws:)1950 973 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(If)24 b(there)h(e)o(xist)g(one)f(or)h
(more)f(serv)o(ers)g(within)h(the)g(same)g(bin)g(as)h(the)1950
1072 y(client,)h(then)f(the)g(client)g(is)h(redirected)e(to)h(a)h
(random)d(serv)o(er)h(from)h(its)1950 1171 y(o)n(wn)20
b(bin.)1950 1269 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(If)15 b(no)h(serv)o(er)f(e)o(xists)i
(within)f(the)g(same)g(bin)g(as)h(the)f(client,)h(then)e(an)h(e)o(x-)
1950 1368 y(isting)k(serv)o(er)e(is)j(selected)e(at)h(random)e(from)g
(the)i(set)g(of)f(serv)o(ers)g(whose)1950 1467 y(bin)25
b(is)h(most)f(similar)h(to)f(the)g(client')-5 b(s)26
b(bin.)40 b(W)-7 b(e)26 b(de\002ne)f(the)g(de)o(gree)f(of)1950
1566 y(similarity)32 b(between)f(tw)o(o)h(bins)g(to)g(be)g(the)f
(number)g(of)g(positions)g(in)1950 1665 y(their)20 b(landmark)e
(orderings)h(on)g(which)h(the)o(y)f(match.)2033 1779
y(In)i(practice,)g(the)h(abo)o(v)o(e)e(serv)o(er)h(selection)g(might)g
(be)g(implemented)1950 1878 y(by)42 b(ha)n(ving)g(the)g(client)h
(include)e(its)j(bin)e(information)e(in)j(a)g(DNS)1950
1977 y(query)-5 b(.)22 b(DNS)16 b(name)g(serv)o(ers)f(could)h(maintain)
f(the)h(bin)g(information)d(for)1950 2076 y(serv)o(ers)23
b(holding)e(their)i(content)g(\(for)f(e)o(xample,)g(CNN')-5
b(s)25 b(name)d(serv)o(er)1950 2174 y(might)36 b(maintain)f(the)h(bin)g
(information)e(for)i(W)-7 b(eb)37 b(serv)o(ers)e(holding)1950
2273 y(CNN)24 b(content\).)31 b(Name)22 b(serv)o(ers)g(might)g(then)g
(use)h(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)e(scheme)1950 2372 y(to)f(select)h(a)g(serv)o
(er)e(for)h(the)g(requesting)e(client.)2033 2479 y(W)-7
b(e)21 b(compare)e(the)h(performance)d(of)j(our)g(binning-based)d(serv)
o(er)i(se-)1950 2577 y(lection)h(to)g(3)g(schemes:)1950
2692 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(Random:)34 b(A)27 b(client)e(selects)i(one)e(of)
g(all)h(a)n(v)n(ailable)f(serv)o(ers)g(at)h(ran-)1950
2791 y(dom.)1950 2890 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(Selection)33
b(using)h(the)g(Hotz)f(metric:)53 b(Hotz)34 b([30],)i([31],)g(lik)o(e)e
(our)1950 2988 y(binning)j(scheme,)43 b(uses)c(R)-5 b(TT)39
b(measurements)f(from)f(a)i(node)f(to)h(a)1950 3087 y(set)29
b(of)g(well)g(kno)n(wn)e(landmarks)g(to)h(estimate)h(inter)n(-node)e
(distances.)1950 3186 y(The)37 b(Hotz)g(metric)g(is)h(computed)e(as)h
(follo)n(ws:)59 b(Let)38 b Fl(d)3653 3198 y Fc(a)3693
3149 y(i)3759 3186 y Fp(represent)1950 3285 y(the)i(distance)f(from)g
(a)i(node)e Fl(A)h Fp(to)g(landmark)e Fl(I)7 b Fp(.)85
b(Then)39 b(for)g(an)o(y)1950 3384 y(tw)o(o)d(nodes)g
Fl(A)h Fp(and)e Fl(B)41 b Fp(and)36 b(Landmark)e Fl(I)7
b Fp(,)40 b(the)d(distance)e(between)1950 3482 y Fl(A)47
b Fp(and)f Fl(B)51 b Fp(is)c(bounded)d(belo)n(w)h(by)3152
3412 y Fa(\014)3152 3462 y(\014)3180 3482 y Fl(d)3223
3494 y Fc(a)3263 3445 y(i)3309 3482 y Fb(\000)18 b Fl(d)3435
3494 y Fc(b)3469 3445 y(i)3496 3412 y Fa(\014)3496 3462
y(\014)3571 3482 y Fp(and)45 b(abo)o(v)o(e)g(by)1950
3525 y Fa(\014)1950 3574 y(\014)1978 3595 y Fl(d)2021
3607 y Fc(a)2061 3558 y(i)2107 3595 y Fj(+)18 b Fl(d)2233
3607 y Fc(b)2267 3558 y(i)2294 3525 y Fa(\014)2294 3574
y(\014)2352 3595 y Fp(assuming)29 b(triangle)g(inequality)-5
b(.)52 b(Extending)27 b(this)k(to)e(m)1950 3694 y(Landmarks,)i(the)g
(distance)f(between)g(nodes)g Fl(A)i Fp(and)e Fl(B)35
b Fp(is)d(bounded)1950 3793 y(belo)n(w)e(by)h(MAX\()2519
3722 y Fa(\014)2519 3772 y(\014)2546 3793 y Fl(d)2589
3805 y Fc(a)2630 3756 y Fk(1)2685 3793 y Fb(\000)18 b
Fl(d)2811 3805 y Fc(b)2845 3756 y Fk(1)2882 3722 y Fa(\014)2882
3772 y(\014)2924 3793 y Fl(;)c(:)g(:)g(:)f(;)h Fb(j)p
Fl(d)3174 3805 y Fc(a)3214 3756 y(m)3296 3793 y Fb(\000)k
Fl(d)3422 3805 y Fc(b)3456 3756 y(m)3519 3793 y Fb(j)p
Fp(\))31 b(and)g(abo)o(v)o(e)e(by)1950 3905 y(MIN\()2140
3834 y Fa(\014)2140 3884 y(\014)2167 3905 y Fl(d)2210
3917 y Fc(a)2250 3868 y Fk(1)2306 3905 y Fj(+)18 b Fl(d)2432
3917 y Fc(b)2465 3868 y Fk(1)2503 3834 y Fa(\014)2503
3884 y(\014)2544 3905 y Fl(;)c(:)g(:)g(:)g(;)g Fb(j)p
Fl(d)2795 3917 y Fc(a)2835 3868 y(m)2917 3905 y Fj(+)k
Fl(d)3043 3917 y Fc(b)3076 3868 y(m)3139 3905 y Fb(j)p
Fp(\).)86 b(Using)40 b(Hotz')-5 b(s)40 b(scheme,)1950
4004 y(the)25 b(distance)f(between)f Fl(A)j Fp(and)e
Fl(B)29 b Fp(is)c(then)f(the)h(a)n(v)o(erage)e(of)h(the)h(lo)n(wer)1950
4102 y(and)e(upper)g(bounds)f(as)j(computed)d(abo)o(v)o(e.)34
b(Applying)23 b(Hotz')-5 b(s)24 b(metric)1950 4201 y(to)i(serv)o(er)g
(selection,)h(a)g(client)f(selects)h(the)f(serv)o(er)g(to)g(which)g
(its)h(esti-)1950 4300 y(mated)20 b(distance)f(is)j(minimum.)2907
4270 y Fo(13)1950 4399 y Fd(\017)42 b Fp(Selection)28
b(based)g(on)h(Cartesian)g(distance:)42 b(Here,)30 b(we)f(simply)g(re-)
1950 4498 y(gard)i(each)h(landmark)e(as)j(de\002ning)d(an)i(axis)h(in)f
(a)h(Cartesian)f(space.)1950 4596 y(W)-7 b(e)22 b(thus)e(treat)h(a)g
(node')-5 b(s)20 b(v)o(ector)f(of)i(distances)f(to)h
Fl(m)g Fp(landmarks)e(as)j(its)1950 4695 y(coordinates)f(in)i
(m-dimensional)d(Cartesian)j(space)f(and)g(compute)g(the)1950
4794 y(distance)h(between)g(tw)o(o)h(nodes)f Fl(A)h Fp(and)f
Fl(B)28 b Fp(as)d(the)e(Cartesian)h(distance)1950 4893
y(between)f(their)g(coordinates.)34 b(F)o(or)23 b(serv)o(er)g
(selection,)h(a)g(client)g(selects)1950 4992 y(the)c(serv)o(er)g(to)g
(which)g(its)h(estimated)f(distance)g(is)h(minimum.)2033
5106 y(Note)e(that)h(one)f(adv)n(antage)e(in)j(general)e(\(not)h
(necessarily)g(for)f(serv)o(er)1950 5205 y(selection\))e(of)h(using)f
(bins)h(as)g(a)h(metric)e(rather)g(than)g(the)h(Hotz)g(or)g(Carte-)1950
5304 y(sian)k(distance)g(is)g(that)g(the)g(latter)g(metrics)g(require)e
(more)h(information.)2003 5453 y Fn(13)2068 5476 y Fq(In)e([30],)g
(Hotz)g(de\002nes)g(the)h(metric)g(we)f(describe)h(b)o(ut)f(does)g(not)
g(apply)h(his)f(w)o(ork)g(to)1950 5549 y(the)e(serv)o(er)h(selection)h
(problem.)j(This)15 b(application)k(of)d(the)g(Hotz)g(metric)h(is)f
(our)f(interpre-)1950 5622 y(tation)k(of)e(ho)n(w)g(it)h(might)f(be)h
(used)f(for)g(serv)o(er)h(selection.)p eop
%%Page: 8 8
8 7 bop 59 -126 1477 4 v 57 -27 4 99 v 108 -57 a Fp(T)-7
b(opology)p 473 -27 V 97 w(Hotz)p 734 -27 V 99 w(Crtsn)p
1013 -27 V 112 w(Bin)p 1258 -27 V 113 w(Rand)p 1533 -27
V 59 -24 1477 4 v 59 -7 V 57 91 4 99 v 133 62 a(TS-10K)p
473 91 V 130 w(3.50)p 734 91 V 124 w(2.35)p 1013 91 V
115 w(2.40)p 1258 91 V 113 w(4.94)p 1533 91 V 57 190
V 153 160 a(TS-1K)p 473 190 V 152 w(2.31)p 734 190 V
124 w(1.35)p 1013 190 V 115 w(1.58)p 1258 190 V 113 w(5.92)p
1533 190 V 57 289 V 140 259 a(PLRG1)p 473 289 V 159 w(1.6)p
734 289 V 145 w(1.98)p 1013 289 V 115 w(1.72)p 1258 289
V 113 w(2.51)p 1533 289 V 57 388 V 140 358 a(PLRG2)p
473 388 V 138 w(1.54)p 734 388 V 124 w(2.01)p 1013 388
V 115 w(1.81)p 1258 388 V 113 w(2.49)p 1533 388 V 57
487 V 124 457 a(NLANR)p 473 487 V 122 w(1.32)p 734 487
V 124 w(1.51)p 1013 487 V 115 w(1.39)p 1258 487 V 113
w(2.27)p 1533 487 V 59 490 1477 4 v 662 592 a Fq(T)h(ABLE)16
b(II)588 691 y Fs(A)l(ver)o(a)o(g)o(e)j(Str)n(etc)o(h)-260
904 y Fp(F)o(or)j(e)o(xample,)g(with)h(the)g(latter)g(metrics,)g(for)f
(a)h(node)f(to)g(locate)h(close-)-260 1003 y(by)16 b(nodes)g(\(the)h
(Short-Long)d(algorithm)h(of)h(Section)h(III)f(required)f(this\),)-260
1102 y(it)26 b(must)f(learn)f(of)g(all)i(a)n(v)n(ailable)e(nodes)g(in)h
(order)f(to)h(compare)e(its)j(dis-)-260 1200 y(tance)k(to)g(each)f(one)
h(in)g(turn.)53 b(W)m(ith)30 b(binning)e(on)h(the)h(other)f(hand,)i(a)
-260 1299 y(node)24 b(need)f(only)h(learn)g(about)g(those)g(nodes)g(in)
g(its)i(bin)e(and)g(can)g(then)-260 1398 y(pick)c(one)f(of)g(them.)25
b(Thus,)19 b(binning)f(serv)o(es)i(as)h(an)e(implicit)h(\002rst-order)
-260 1497 y(screening)28 b(process)g(which)h(mak)o(es)g(binning-based)c
(schemes)k(some-)-260 1596 y(what)20 b(easier)h(to)f(apply)f(scalably)
-5 b(.)-177 1694 y(F)o(or)36 b(serv)o(er)g(selection,)41
b(we)c(de\002ne)f(the)g(latenc)o(y)g(stretch)h(from)e(a)-260
1793 y(client)23 b(node)f(as)h(the)g(ratio)f(of)h(its)h(latenc)o(y)e
(to)h(the)f(serv)o(er)g(selected)h(by)f(a)-260 1892 y(selection)e
(scheme)g(to)h(its)g(latenc)o(y)e(to)i(the)f(optimal)g(serv)o(er)f(\()p
Fm(i.e)o(.)25 b Fp(the)c(ac-)-260 1991 y(tual)16 b(closest)h(serv)o
(er\).)23 b(W)-7 b(e)17 b(then)f(compute)e(the)j(a)n(v)o(erage)e
(latenc)o(y)g(stretch)-260 2090 y(as)26 b(the)f(ratio)g(of)f(the)h(a)n
(v)o(erage)f(latenc)o(y)g(to)h(the)g(selected)g(serv)o(er)f(by)h(the)
-260 2188 y(a)n(v)o(erage)20 b(latenc)o(y)g(to)g(the)h(closest)h(serv)o
(er)-5 b(.)26 b(W)-7 b(e)22 b(e)n(v)n(aluate)d(our)h(serv)o(er)g(se-)
-260 2287 y(lection)g(scheme)g(using)f(the)h(test)i(topologies)c
(described)h(in)i(Section)e(II.)-177 2461 y(T)-7 b(able)20
b(II)g(compares)f(the)h(dif)n(ferent)f(serv)o(er)g(selection)h(schemes)
g(o)o(v)o(er)-260 2560 y(a)j(range)e(of)h(dif)n(ferent)e(topologies.)29
b(All)23 b(the)f(tests)i(used)e(12)f(landmarks)-260 2659
y(and)30 b(3)h(le)n(v)o(els.)56 b(The)31 b(number)e(of)h(serv)o(ers)g
(w)o(as)i(set)f(to)g(1000)e(serv)o(ers)-260 2757 y(for)j(TS-10K,)g(100)
g(for)g(TS-1K,)g(PLRG1)h(and)f(PLRG2)h(and)f(10)g(for)-260
2856 y(NLANR.)i(W)-7 b(e)35 b(see)g(that)e(Cartesian-based)g(selection)
h(performs)e(the)-260 2955 y(best)19 b(for)f(T)m(ransit-Stub)f
(topologies)g(b)n(ut)h(not)g(as)h(well)g(on)f(PLRGs)i(while)-260
3054 y(Hotz-distance)15 b(based)h(selection)f(sho)n(ws)i(e)o(xactly)e
(the)h(opposite)f(beha)n(v-)-260 3153 y(ior)-5 b(.)49
b(Binning-based)25 b(selection)j(w)o(orks)f(well)i(across)f(all)g(the)g
(topolo-)-260 3251 y(gies.)k(But)23 b(again,)e(the)h(small)h
(performance)d(dif)n(ferences)g(between)i(the)-260 3350
y(dif)n(ferent)h(schemes)i(is)h(not)f(particularly)e(interesting.)39
b(What)25 b(is)h(inter)n(-)-260 3449 y(esting)21 b(ho)n(we)n(v)o(er)m
(,)e(is)j(that)g(the)f(abo)o(v)o(e)f(results)h(sho)n(w)g(that)h
Fm(all)f Fp(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)-260 3548 y(simple)d(topological)d(hints)
j(w)o(ork)f(quite)g(well.)25 b(Our)17 b(binning)f(scheme)h(is)-260
3647 y(one)k(such)h(hint)f(that)h(has)f(the)h(added)e(adv)n(antage)g
(of)h(being)g(easy)h(to)f(use)-260 3745 y(in)g(a)f(scalable)g(manner)-5
b(.)-177 3844 y(Figure)32 b(10)h(sho)n(ws)g(the)f(ef)n(fect)h(of)f
(increasing)g(numbers)f(of)i(land-)-260 3943 y(marks)22
b(on)f(the)h(performance)e(of)h(binning-based)e(selection.)31
b(W)-7 b(e)23 b(used)-260 4042 y(1,000)e(serv)o(ers)h(for)f(TS-10k)g
(and)h(100)g(serv)o(ers)g(in)g(all)h(other)f(cases.)32
b(As)-260 4141 y(e)o(xpected,)17 b(with)h(increasing)f(landmarks,)f
(performance)g(impro)o(v)o(es)g(b)n(ut)-260 4239 y(quite)31
b(quickly)e(of)n(fers)i(diminishing)e(returns.)56 b(W)-7
b(e)33 b(suspect)e(that)g(the)-260 4338 y(slight)k(performance)d(impro)
o(v)o(ement)g(for)i(PLRGs)i(is)g(because)e(most)-260
4437 y(nodes)29 b(are)g(within)g(a)g(fe)n(w)g(\(2-4\))f(hops)g(a)o(w)o
(ay)h(from)f(each)h(other)m(,)h(and)-260 4536 y(so)22
b(e)n(v)o(en)f(a)h(randomly)e(selected)i(serv)o(er)f(is)h(unlik)o(ely)
-5 b(,)21 b(in)h(general,)f(to)h(be)-260 4634 y(v)o(ery)d(f)o(ar)h
(from)f(the)i(client.)-177 4733 y(Plotting)i(only)g(the)g(a)n(v)o
(erage)f(latenc)o(y)h(stretch)g(hides)g(the)g(indi)n(vidual)-260
4832 y(node)i(performance.)40 b(In)26 b(the)g(remaining)e(graphs)h(we)i
(plot)f(the)g(distri-)-260 4931 y(b)n(ution)k(of)g(stretch)g(o)o(v)o
(er)f(all)i(nodes.)55 b(Figure)29 b(11)h(plots)h(the)f(cumula-)-260
5030 y(ti)n(v)o(e)22 b(distrib)n(ution)e(of)i(the)f(latenc)o(y)g
(stretch)h(for)f(TS-10K)g(\226)h(transit-stub)-260 5128
y(topology)e(with)i(10,000)e(nodes)h(\226)h(using)g(12)f(landmarks)g
(and)g(3)h(le)n(v)o(els.)-260 5227 y(Of)27 b(the)f(10,000)e(total)j
(nodes,)g(1,000)d(nodes)i(are)g(selected)h(at)g(random)-260
5326 y(as)20 b(serv)o(ers;)f(the)g(remaining)e(act)j(as)g(clients.)25
b(As)19 b(can)g(be)g(seen,)h(all)f(three)-260 5425 y(schemes)24
b(perform)e(signi\002cantly)i(better)f(than)h(random)e(serv)o(er)i
(selec-)-260 5524 y(tion.)40 b(Cartesian)26 b(distance)f(and)g
(binning-based)d(selection)j(yield)g(bet-)-260 5622 y(ter)f(results)h
(than)e(the)h(use)g(of)g(Hotz')-5 b(s)24 b(metric.)36
b(The)24 b(absolute)f(v)n(alue)g(of)1950 -46 y(the)d(latenc)o(y)f
(stretch)g(\(on)g(the)h(X-axis\))f(appears)g(high,)g(ranging)f(up-to)g
(a)1950 52 y(f)o(actor)f(of)h(twenty)-5 b(.)23 b(These)18
b(high)f(v)n(alues)g(are)h(lar)o(gely)e(due)h(to)h(our)f(hierar)n(-)
1950 151 y(chical)23 b(link)f(delay)h(distrib)n(ution)e(\(from)h
(Section)g(II:)31 b(2ms)23 b(inside)g(Stub)1950 250 y(domains,)36
b(20ms)d(inside)g(T)m(ransit)g(stubs)h(and)f(5ms)h(on)f(Stub-T)m
(ransit)1950 349 y(links\).)51 b(F)o(or)29 b(e)o(xample,)g(consider)f
(a)h(client)g(whose)g(closest)h(serv)o(er)e(is)1950 447
y(within)h(its)h(o)n(wn)f(Stub)g(domain.)50 b(The)29
b(closest)g(serv)o(er)g(is)h(then)f(about)1950 546 y(2ms)19
b(a)o(w)o(ay)f(from)g(the)h(client.)24 b(If)19 b(the)g(client)g
(incorrectly)e(picks)h(a)h(serv)o(er)1950 645 y(from)h(across)h(the)f
(T)m(ransit)h(domain,)e(then)i(its)g(distance)g(to)g(the)g(selected)
1950 744 y(serv)o(er)29 b(will)h(be)f(at)i(least)f(34ms)f(\()p
Fj(2)24 b(+)h(5)g(+)g(20)g(+)g(5)f(+)h(2)30 b Fp(as)g(its)h(tra)n(v-)
1950 843 y(els)25 b(from)e(the)h(source)f(stub)h(domain,)g(across)g
(the)g(transit)g(domain)f(and)1950 941 y(through)16 b(the)j
(destination)f(stub\))g(yielding)f(a)i(stretch)g(f)o(actor)e(of)i
(approx-)1950 1040 y(imately)25 b(17)g(e)n(v)o(en)f(though)g(a)i
(routing)d(v)n(alue)i(of)g(34ms)g(is)h(quite)f(good.)1950
1139 y(T)-7 b(o)27 b(account)e(for)g(such)i(in\003ated)f(stretch)g(v)n
(alues)g(caused)g(by)g(ha)n(ving)f(a)1950 1238 y(serv)o(er)d(right)h
(ne)o(xt)f(to)i(a)f(client,)h(we)f(recompute)e(the)j(stretch)f(v)n
(alues)f(in)1950 1337 y(Figure)i(11)g(with)g(the)h(follo)n(wing)d
(adjustment:)33 b(In)24 b(calculating)f(the)h(la-)1950
1435 y(tenc)o(y)h(stretch,)i(we)f(add)g(a)g(constant)f(of)h(10.0)f(to)h
(both)f(the)h(numerator)1950 1534 y(and)20 b(denominator)d(latencies.)
25 b(In)20 b(other)f(w)o(ords,)2144 1748 y Fi(str)r(etch)g
Fh(=)2561 1702 y Fi(l)q(atency)f Fg(\000)e Fi(to)g Fg(\000)g
Fi(sel)q(ected)e Fg(\000)i Fi(ser)r(v)r(er)h Fh(+)f(10)p
Fi(:)p Fh(0)p 2469 1733 1390 4 v 2469 1798 a Fi(l)q(atency)i
Fg(\000)e Fi(to)g Fg(\000)g Fi(tr)r(ue)f Fg(\000)h Fi(cl)q(osest)e
Fg(\000)i Fi(ser)r(v)r(er)h Fh(+)f(10)p Fi(:)p Fh(0)2033
2047 y Fp(Figure)21 b(12)g(repeats)h(the)f(results)h(from)f(Figure)g
(11)g(with)h(this)g(adjust-)1950 2145 y(ment.)40 b(While)25
b(the)g(relati)n(v)o(e)g(performance)d(of)j(the)g(dif)n(ferent)f
(schemes)1950 2244 y(remains)17 b(lar)o(gely)g(unchanged,)f(we)i(see)h
(that)f(the)g(absolute)f(v)n(alue)h(of)g(the)1950 2343
y(stretch)h(ranges)g(f)o(alls)h(dramatically)e(sho)n(wing)h(that)g
(high)g(stretch)h(ratios)1950 2442 y(are)g(indeed)f(for)h(short)g
(latencies.)2033 2547 y(Figure)40 b(13)h(plots)g(the)g(cumulati)n(v)o
(e)f(distrib)n(ution)f(of)i(stretch)g(for)1950 2645 y(the)33
b(NLANR)h(dataset)f(\(without)g(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)f(adjustment)g(since)
h(our)1950 2744 y(NLANR)i(trace)f(did)f(not)h(ha)n(v)o(e)g(v)o(ery)e
(short)i(latencies)g(to)h(cause)f(the)1950 2843 y(abo)o(v)o(e)25
b(in\003ation)h(problem\).)43 b(Of)27 b(the)g(103)f(nodes)g(in)h(the)g
(dataset,)h(we)1950 2942 y(pick)o(ed)c(10)g(serv)o(ers)h(at)g(random,)f
(12)h(landmarks)e(at)i(random,)f(and)h(the)1950 3041
y(remaining)d(nodes)h(act)h(as)h(client)f(nodes.)35 b(The)24
b(plot)f(indicates)h(that)g(all)1950 3139 y(three)31
b(selection)h(schemes)g(perform)e(signi\002cantly)g(better)i(than)f
(ran-)1950 3238 y(dom)21 b(selection.)30 b(50-60\045)20
b(of)i(the)g(nodes)f(correctly)g(select)h(the)g(closest)1950
3337 y(serv)o(er)h(while)h(around)e(90\045)i(of)f(the)h(nodes)g(pick)f
(a)h(serv)o(er)g(that)g(is)g(less)1950 3436 y(than)c(a)g(f)o(actor)g
(of)g(tw)o(o)g(a)o(w)o(ay)g(from)f(the)h(actual)g(closest)h(serv)o(er)
-5 b(.)2033 3541 y(Note)23 b(that)g(the)g(Cartesian)h(distance)e(based)
h(selection)g(has)g(a)h(longer)1950 3639 y(tail)g(than)e(the)i(other)e
(tw)o(o)h(selection)g(schemes.)34 b(Also,)24 b(unlik)o(e)e(our)h(ear)n
(-)1950 3738 y(lier)h(simulation)g(results,)h(the)f(performance)d(of)j
(Hotz-distance)f(based)1950 3837 y(selection)f(is)i(competiti)n(v)o(e)d
(with)i(the)g(other)f(tw)o(o)g(schemes.)33 b(A)23 b(conclu-)1950
3936 y(sion)d(one)g(might)g(dra)o(w)g(from)g(this)h(plot)f(is)h(that)g
(we)g(really)f(do)g(not)g(need)1950 4035 y(to)28 b(w)o(ork)g(v)o(ery)f
(hard)h(to)g(achie)n(v)o(e)f(good)g(serv)o(er)h(selection.)49
b(Hence)27 b(in)1950 4133 y(designing)17 b(such)h(topology)d(inference)
i(systems)i(one)e(might)h(ar)o(gue)e(that)1950 4232 y(the)25
b(simplicity)-5 b(,)26 b(scalability)f(and)f(practicality)g(of)h(the)g
(system)h(should)1950 4331 y(be)20 b(as)h(important)e(goals)h(as)h
(prediction)d(accurac)o(y)-5 b(.)2654 4487 y(V)e(.)45
b(R)t Fq(E)t(L)t(A)m(T)t(E)t(D)24 b Fp(W)s Fq(O)t(R)t(K)2033
4634 y Fp(The)19 b(IDMaps)g([16],)f(GNP)h([17])f(and)h(WNMS)h([18])e
(projects)g(all)i(de-)1950 4733 y(scribe)k(architectures)e(for)h(a)h
(global)f(distance)g(estimation)h(service.)35 b(In)1950
4832 y(constrast,)30 b(our)e(primary)f(focus)h(is)h(on)g(the)f
(applications)g(and)g(not)g(on)1950 4931 y(the)17 b(infrastructure.)22
b(W)-7 b(e)18 b(e)o(xplore)e(the)h(problem)f(of)h(designing)f(applica-)
1950 5030 y(tions)23 b(to)g(be)g(topologically)d(a)o(w)o(are)j(while)g
(making)e(minimal)h(assump-)1950 5128 y(tions)j(about)e(an)o(y)h
(measurement)f(infrastructure.)36 b(As)25 b(such,)h(we)f(vie)n(w)1950
5227 y(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e)f(w)o(ork)g(as)i(complementary)c(to)j(our)g(o)
n(wn)f(because)h(an)o(y)f(ad-)1950 5326 y(ditional)e(aid)g(from)g(the)h
(infrastructure,)d(for)i(e)o(xample,)g(in)h(the)f(form)g(of)1950
5425 y(more)16 b(accurate)g(topological)f(information,)g(can)h(only)g
(impro)o(v)o(e)f(our)h(re-)1950 5524 y(sults.)25 b(Compared)16
b(to)h(IDMaps,)g(GNP)h(and)f(WNMS,)h(binning)e(requires)1950
5622 y(less)22 b(support)d(from)g(the)i(infrastructure.)i(The)d
(Geo-Ping)g(algorithm)e(in)p eop
%%Page: 9 9
9 8 bop -260 -38 a
 16379201 11301648 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 -260 -38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/ss_landmarks.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Wed Feb  6 11:29:07 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
728 560 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 560 M
(0.5) Rshow
728 1103 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(1) Rshow
728 1645 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(1.5) Rshow
728 2188 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(2) Rshow
728 2730 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(2.5) Rshow
728 3273 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(3) Rshow
728 3815 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(3.5) Rshow
728 4358 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(4) Rshow
728 4900 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(4.5) Rshow
1793 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4) Cshow
3922 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8) Cshow
6051 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(12) Cshow
LTb
728 560 M
6388 0 V
0 4340 V
-6388 0 V
728 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Average Latency Stretch) Cshow
grestore
3922 210 M
(Number of Landmarks) Cshow
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6402 4759 M
(Transit-Stub; 10K nodes) Rshow
6486 4759 M
462 0 V
1793 4672 M
3922 3294 L
6051 2622 L
1793 4672 Pls
3922 3294 Pls
6051 2622 Pls
6717 4759 Pls
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6402 4602 M
(Transit-Stub; 1K nodes) Rshow
6486 4602 M
462 0 V
1793 3576 M
3922 1992 L
6051 1732 L
1793 3576 Crs
3922 1992 Crs
6051 1732 Crs
6717 4602 Crs
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6402 4445 M
(Power Law Random Graph; 1166 nodes) Rshow
6486 4445 M
462 0 V
1793 2329 M
3922 2079 L
6051 1884 L
1793 2329 Star
3922 2079 Star
6051 1884 Star
6717 4445 Star
2.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6402 4288 M
(Power Law Random Graph; 1779 nodes) Rshow
6486 4288 M
462 0 V
1793 2502 M
3922 2166 L
6051 1981 L
1793 2502 Box
3922 2166 Box
6051 1981 Box
6717 4288 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 50 1617 a Fq(Fig.)17 b(10.)37 b Fs(Ef)o(fect)18 b(of)g(Number)f(of)g
(Landmarks)h(and)f(T)-6 b(opolo)o(gy)1988 -38 y
 16379201 11301648 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 1988
-38 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/eg_ts10k_1k_12_ss.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Wed Feb  6 15:07:40 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
728 560 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 560 M
(0) Rshow
728 994 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 994 M
(10) Rshow
728 1428 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(20) Rshow
728 1862 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(30) Rshow
728 2296 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(40) Rshow
728 2730 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(50) Rshow
728 3164 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(60) Rshow
728 3598 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(70) Rshow
728 4032 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(80) Rshow
728 4466 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(90) Rshow
728 4900 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(100) Rshow
728 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
728 420 M
(0) Cshow
2006 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(5) Cshow
3283 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(10) Cshow
4561 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(15) Cshow
5838 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(20) Cshow
7116 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(25) Cshow
LTb
728 560 M
6388 0 V
0 4340 V
-6388 0 V
728 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Percentage of nodes) Cshow
grestore
3922 210 M
(Latency Stretch) Cshow
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6465 4767 M
(Binning) Rshow
6549 4767 M
399 0 V
984 560 M
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
13 34 V
2 34 V
10 33 V
3 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
3 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
5 34 V
0 34 V
15 34 V
5 33 V
7 34 V
0 34 V
10 34 V
12 34 V
24 33 V
18 34 V
0 34 V
14 34 V
9 34 V
6 33 V
3 34 V
6 34 V
0 34 V
5 34 V
0 33 V
5 34 V
5 34 V
9 34 V
6 34 V
13 33 V
47 34 V
28 34 V
29 34 V
14 34 V
14 33 V
25 34 V
60 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
22 33 V
64 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
51 33 V
34 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
42 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
32 34 V
11 33 V
49 34 V
36 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
116 34 V
12 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
128 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
63 34 V
64 33 V
128 34 V
256 34 V
383 34 V
213 34 V
0 33 V
42 34 V
43 34 V
85 34 V
85 34 V
810 33 V
127 34 V
0 34 V
128 34 V
0 34 V
128 33 V
0 34 V
1022 34 V
984 560 Pls
984 594 Pls
984 628 Pls
984 662 Pls
984 696 Pls
984 729 Pls
984 763 Pls
984 797 Pls
984 831 Pls
984 865 Pls
984 898 Pls
984 932 Pls
984 966 Pls
984 1000 Pls
984 1034 Pls
984 1067 Pls
984 1101 Pls
984 1135 Pls
984 1169 Pls
984 1203 Pls
984 1236 Pls
984 1270 Pls
984 1304 Pls
984 1338 Pls
984 1372 Pls
984 1405 Pls
984 1439 Pls
984 1473 Pls
984 1507 Pls
984 1541 Pls
984 1575 Pls
984 1608 Pls
984 1642 Pls
984 1676 Pls
984 1710 Pls
984 1744 Pls
984 1777 Pls
984 1811 Pls
984 1845 Pls
997 1879 Pls
999 1913 Pls
1009 1946 Pls
1012 1980 Pls
1012 2014 Pls
1012 2048 Pls
1015 2082 Pls
1015 2115 Pls
1015 2149 Pls
1020 2183 Pls
1020 2217 Pls
1035 2251 Pls
1040 2284 Pls
1047 2318 Pls
1047 2352 Pls
1057 2386 Pls
1069 2420 Pls
1093 2453 Pls
1111 2487 Pls
1111 2521 Pls
1125 2555 Pls
1134 2589 Pls
1140 2622 Pls
1143 2656 Pls
1149 2690 Pls
1149 2724 Pls
1154 2758 Pls
1154 2791 Pls
1159 2825 Pls
1164 2859 Pls
1173 2893 Pls
1179 2927 Pls
1192 2960 Pls
1239 2994 Pls
1267 3028 Pls
1296 3062 Pls
1310 3096 Pls
1324 3129 Pls
1349 3163 Pls
1409 3197 Pls
1409 3231 Pls
1409 3265 Pls
1431 3298 Pls
1495 3332 Pls
1495 3366 Pls
1495 3400 Pls
1495 3434 Pls
1546 3467 Pls
1580 3501 Pls
1580 3535 Pls
1580 3569 Pls
1580 3603 Pls
1580 3636 Pls
1622 3670 Pls
1622 3704 Pls
1622 3738 Pls
1654 3772 Pls
1665 3805 Pls
1714 3839 Pls
1750 3873 Pls
1750 3907 Pls
1750 3941 Pls
1750 3974 Pls
1750 4008 Pls
1866 4042 Pls
1878 4076 Pls
1878 4110 Pls
1878 4143 Pls
2006 4177 Pls
2006 4211 Pls
2006 4245 Pls
2069 4279 Pls
2133 4312 Pls
2261 4346 Pls
2517 4380 Pls
2900 4414 Pls
3113 4448 Pls
3113 4481 Pls
3155 4515 Pls
3198 4549 Pls
3283 4583 Pls
3368 4617 Pls
4178 4650 Pls
4305 4684 Pls
4305 4718 Pls
4433 4752 Pls
4433 4786 Pls
4561 4819 Pls
4561 4853 Pls
5583 4887 Pls
6748 4767 Pls
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6465 4627 M
(Hotz) Rshow
6549 4627 M
399 0 V
984 560 M
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
13 34 V
1 34 V
1 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
11 34 V
2 34 V
2 34 V
1 33 V
5 34 V
1 34 V
39 34 V
51 34 V
23 34 V
6 33 V
0 34 V
9 34 V
0 34 V
9 34 V
34 33 V
21 34 V
26 34 V
28 34 V
4 34 V
25 33 V
7 34 V
0 34 V
21 34 V
25 34 V
18 33 V
18 34 V
24 34 V
0 34 V
43 34 V
43 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
51 34 V
5 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
29 34 V
28 34 V
14 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
32 34 V
11 33 V
49 34 V
36 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
37 34 V
48 34 V
25 34 V
18 34 V
0 33 V
64 34 V
0 34 V
32 34 V
32 34 V
109 33 V
4 34 V
57 34 V
85 34 V
0 34 V
85 33 V
85 34 V
86 34 V
64 34 V
191 34 V
128 33 V
43 34 V
85 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
85 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
42 34 V
0 34 V
43 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
85 34 V
0 33 V
682 34 V
0 34 V
85 34 V
0 34 V
128 33 V
127 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
128 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
128 34 V
1022 34 V
0 34 V
128 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
984 560 Crs
984 594 Crs
984 628 Crs
984 662 Crs
984 696 Crs
984 729 Crs
984 763 Crs
984 797 Crs
984 831 Crs
984 865 Crs
984 898 Crs
984 932 Crs
984 966 Crs
984 1000 Crs
984 1034 Crs
984 1067 Crs
984 1101 Crs
997 1135 Crs
998 1169 Crs
999 1203 Crs
999 1236 Crs
999 1270 Crs
1010 1304 Crs
1012 1338 Crs
1014 1372 Crs
1015 1405 Crs
1020 1439 Crs
1021 1473 Crs
1060 1507 Crs
1111 1541 Crs
1134 1575 Crs
1140 1608 Crs
1140 1642 Crs
1149 1676 Crs
1149 1710 Crs
1158 1744 Crs
1192 1777 Crs
1213 1811 Crs
1239 1845 Crs
1267 1879 Crs
1271 1913 Crs
1296 1946 Crs
1303 1980 Crs
1303 2014 Crs
1324 2048 Crs
1349 2082 Crs
1367 2115 Crs
1385 2149 Crs
1409 2183 Crs
1409 2217 Crs
1452 2251 Crs
1495 2284 Crs
1495 2318 Crs
1495 2352 Crs
1546 2386 Crs
1551 2420 Crs
1551 2453 Crs
1551 2487 Crs
1551 2521 Crs
1580 2555 Crs
1608 2589 Crs
1622 2622 Crs
1622 2656 Crs
1622 2690 Crs
1622 2724 Crs
1654 2758 Crs
1665 2791 Crs
1714 2825 Crs
1750 2859 Crs
1750 2893 Crs
1750 2927 Crs
1750 2960 Crs
1787 2994 Crs
1835 3028 Crs
1860 3062 Crs
1878 3096 Crs
1878 3129 Crs
1942 3163 Crs
1942 3197 Crs
1974 3231 Crs
2006 3265 Crs
2115 3298 Crs
2119 3332 Crs
2176 3366 Crs
2261 3400 Crs
2261 3434 Crs
2346 3467 Crs
2431 3501 Crs
2517 3535 Crs
2581 3569 Crs
2772 3603 Crs
2900 3636 Crs
2943 3670 Crs
3028 3704 Crs
3028 3738 Crs
3028 3772 Crs
3113 3805 Crs
3113 3839 Crs
3113 3873 Crs
3155 3907 Crs
3155 3941 Crs
3198 3974 Crs
3198 4008 Crs
3198 4042 Crs
3198 4076 Crs
3283 4110 Crs
3283 4143 Crs
3965 4177 Crs
3965 4211 Crs
4050 4245 Crs
4050 4279 Crs
4178 4312 Crs
4305 4346 Crs
4305 4380 Crs
4305 4414 Crs
4305 4448 Crs
4305 4481 Crs
4305 4515 Crs
4433 4549 Crs
4433 4583 Crs
4433 4617 Crs
4433 4650 Crs
4433 4684 Crs
4561 4718 Crs
5583 4752 Crs
5583 4786 Crs
5711 4819 Crs
5711 4853 Crs
5711 4887 Crs
6748 4627 Crs
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6465 4487 M
(Cartesian) Rshow
6549 4487 M
399 0 V
984 560 M
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
15 34 V
10 34 V
3 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
3 34 V
5 34 V
0 33 V
4 34 V
23 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
10 33 V
12 34 V
42 34 V
0 34 V
14 34 V
9 33 V
6 34 V
5 34 V
4 34 V
0 34 V
5 33 V
0 34 V
4 34 V
6 34 V
0 34 V
4 33 V
7 34 V
64 34 V
0 34 V
57 34 V
7 33 V
21 34 V
38 34 V
47 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
16 34 V
70 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
28 33 V
57 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
42 34 V
0 34 V
55 33 V
9 34 V
64 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
128 33 V
64 34 V
64 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
56 34 V
199 34 V
183 34 V
264 34 V
320 33 V
85 34 V
170 34 V
0 34 V
85 34 V
682 33 V
255 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
256 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
1022 34 V
984 560 Star
984 594 Star
984 628 Star
984 662 Star
984 696 Star
984 729 Star
984 763 Star
984 797 Star
984 831 Star
984 865 Star
984 898 Star
984 932 Star
984 966 Star
984 1000 Star
984 1034 Star
984 1067 Star
984 1101 Star
984 1135 Star
984 1169 Star
984 1203 Star
984 1236 Star
984 1270 Star
984 1304 Star
984 1338 Star
984 1372 Star
984 1405 Star
984 1439 Star
984 1473 Star
984 1507 Star
984 1541 Star
984 1575 Star
984 1608 Star
984 1642 Star
984 1676 Star
984 1710 Star
984 1744 Star
984 1777 Star
984 1811 Star
984 1845 Star
984 1879 Star
984 1913 Star
984 1946 Star
999 1980 Star
1009 2014 Star
1012 2048 Star
1012 2082 Star
1012 2115 Star
1012 2149 Star
1012 2183 Star
1015 2217 Star
1020 2251 Star
1020 2284 Star
1024 2318 Star
1047 2352 Star
1047 2386 Star
1047 2420 Star
1057 2453 Star
1069 2487 Star
1111 2521 Star
1111 2555 Star
1125 2589 Star
1134 2622 Star
1140 2656 Star
1145 2690 Star
1149 2724 Star
1149 2758 Star
1154 2791 Star
1154 2825 Star
1158 2859 Star
1164 2893 Star
1164 2927 Star
1168 2960 Star
1175 2994 Star
1239 3028 Star
1239 3062 Star
1296 3096 Star
1303 3129 Star
1324 3163 Star
1362 3197 Star
1409 3231 Star
1409 3265 Star
1409 3298 Star
1425 3332 Star
1495 3366 Star
1495 3400 Star
1495 3434 Star
1523 3467 Star
1580 3501 Star
1580 3535 Star
1580 3569 Star
1580 3603 Star
1580 3636 Star
1580 3670 Star
1580 3704 Star
1622 3738 Star
1622 3772 Star
1677 3805 Star
1686 3839 Star
1750 3873 Star
1750 3907 Star
1750 3941 Star
1750 3974 Star
1750 4008 Star
1750 4042 Star
1750 4076 Star
1750 4110 Star
1878 4143 Star
1942 4177 Star
2006 4211 Star
2006 4245 Star
2006 4279 Star
2006 4312 Star
2062 4346 Star
2261 4380 Star
2444 4414 Star
2708 4448 Star
3028 4481 Star
3113 4515 Star
3283 4549 Star
3283 4583 Star
3368 4617 Star
4050 4650 Star
4305 4684 Star
4305 4718 Star
4305 4752 Star
4561 4786 Star
4561 4819 Star
4561 4853 Star
5583 4887 Star
6748 4487 Star
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6465 4347 M
(Random) Rshow
6549 4347 M
399 0 V
1113 560 M
28 34 V
5 34 V
5 34 V
6 34 V
4 33 V
5 34 V
4 34 V
2 34 V
5 34 V
4 33 V
2 34 V
5 34 V
5 34 V
4 34 V
9 33 V
13 34 V
163 34 V
79 34 V
32 34 V
12 33 V
21 34 V
11 34 V
13 34 V
7 34 V
9 33 V
4 34 V
7 34 V
13 34 V
10 34 V
8 34 V
8 33 V
7 34 V
6 34 V
8 34 V
3 34 V
6 33 V
6 34 V
9 34 V
8 34 V
14 34 V
9 33 V
4 34 V
7 34 V
8 34 V
9 34 V
6 33 V
8 34 V
11 34 V
8 34 V
18 34 V
15 33 V
9 34 V
12 34 V
20 34 V
18 34 V
38 33 V
27 34 V
58 34 V
75 34 V
137 34 V
87 33 V
140 34 V
145 34 V
80 34 V
60 34 V
56 33 V
49 34 V
117 34 V
138 34 V
65 34 V
32 33 V
22 34 V
22 34 V
27 34 V
16 34 V
12 33 V
26 34 V
23 34 V
11 34 V
15 34 V
11 33 V
19 34 V
16 34 V
13 34 V
13 34 V
19 33 V
29 34 V
31 34 V
37 34 V
51 34 V
49 33 V
113 34 V
397 34 V
104 34 V
60 34 V
33 33 V
33 34 V
26 34 V
31 34 V
23 34 V
22 33 V
16 34 V
15 34 V
12 34 V
11 34 V
23 33 V
16 34 V
18 34 V
15 34 V
10 34 V
18 33 V
9 34 V
14 34 V
15 34 V
23 34 V
22 33 V
22 34 V
14 34 V
21 34 V
21 34 V
22 33 V
31 34 V
27 34 V
28 34 V
31 34 V
50 33 V
81 34 V
156 34 V
1113 560 Box
1141 594 Box
1146 628 Box
1151 662 Box
1157 696 Box
1161 729 Box
1166 763 Box
1170 797 Box
1172 831 Box
1177 865 Box
1181 898 Box
1183 932 Box
1188 966 Box
1193 1000 Box
1197 1034 Box
1206 1067 Box
1219 1101 Box
1382 1135 Box
1461 1169 Box
1493 1203 Box
1505 1236 Box
1526 1270 Box
1537 1304 Box
1550 1338 Box
1557 1372 Box
1566 1405 Box
1570 1439 Box
1577 1473 Box
1590 1507 Box
1600 1541 Box
1608 1575 Box
1616 1608 Box
1623 1642 Box
1629 1676 Box
1637 1710 Box
1640 1744 Box
1646 1777 Box
1652 1811 Box
1661 1845 Box
1669 1879 Box
1683 1913 Box
1692 1946 Box
1696 1980 Box
1703 2014 Box
1711 2048 Box
1720 2082 Box
1726 2115 Box
1734 2149 Box
1745 2183 Box
1753 2217 Box
1771 2251 Box
1786 2284 Box
1795 2318 Box
1807 2352 Box
1827 2386 Box
1845 2420 Box
1883 2453 Box
1910 2487 Box
1968 2521 Box
2043 2555 Box
2180 2589 Box
2267 2622 Box
2407 2656 Box
2552 2690 Box
2632 2724 Box
2692 2758 Box
2748 2791 Box
2797 2825 Box
2914 2859 Box
3052 2893 Box
3117 2927 Box
3149 2960 Box
3171 2994 Box
3193 3028 Box
3220 3062 Box
3236 3096 Box
3248 3129 Box
3274 3163 Box
3297 3197 Box
3308 3231 Box
3323 3265 Box
3334 3298 Box
3353 3332 Box
3369 3366 Box
3382 3400 Box
3395 3434 Box
3414 3467 Box
3443 3501 Box
3474 3535 Box
3511 3569 Box
3562 3603 Box
3611 3636 Box
3724 3670 Box
4121 3704 Box
4225 3738 Box
4285 3772 Box
4318 3805 Box
4351 3839 Box
4377 3873 Box
4408 3907 Box
4431 3941 Box
4453 3974 Box
4469 4008 Box
4484 4042 Box
4496 4076 Box
4507 4110 Box
4530 4143 Box
4546 4177 Box
4564 4211 Box
4579 4245 Box
4589 4279 Box
4607 4312 Box
4616 4346 Box
4630 4380 Box
4645 4414 Box
4668 4448 Box
4690 4481 Box
4712 4515 Box
4726 4549 Box
4747 4583 Box
4768 4617 Box
4790 4650 Box
4821 4684 Box
4848 4718 Box
4876 4752 Box
4907 4786 Box
4957 4819 Box
5038 4853 Box
5194 4887 Box
6748 4347 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 2340 1617 a Fq(Fig.)17 b(11.)38 b Fs(Cumulative)19 b(distrib)o(ution)h
(of)d(Latency)i(Str)n(etc)o(h)-260 1723 y
 16379201 11301648 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 -260 1723 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/eg_ts10k_1k_12_plus10ss.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Wed Feb  6 15:05:48 2002
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
728 560 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 560 M
(0) Rshow
728 994 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 994 M
(10) Rshow
728 1428 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(20) Rshow
728 1862 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(30) Rshow
728 2296 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(40) Rshow
728 2730 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(50) Rshow
728 3164 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(60) Rshow
728 3598 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(70) Rshow
728 4032 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(80) Rshow
728 4466 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(90) Rshow
728 4900 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(100) Rshow
728 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
728 420 M
(0) Cshow
1527 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(1) Cshow
2325 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(2) Cshow
3124 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(3) Cshow
3922 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4) Cshow
4721 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(5) Cshow
5519 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(6) Cshow
6318 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(7) Cshow
7116 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8) Cshow
LTb
728 560 M
6388 0 V
0 4340 V
-6388 0 V
728 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Percentage of nodes) Cshow
grestore
3922 210 M
(Latency Stretch) Cshow
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6465 4767 M
(Binning) Rshow
6549 4767 M
399 0 V
1527 560 M
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
33 34 V
3 34 V
17 33 V
4 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
4 34 V
0 33 V
5 34 V
0 34 V
6 34 V
12 34 V
22 33 V
8 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
8 34 V
0 33 V
11 34 V
35 34 V
60 34 V
119 34 V
15 33 V
19 34 V
0 34 V
18 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
17 34 V
0 34 V
2 34 V
17 34 V
12 33 V
9 34 V
15 34 V
28 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
53 34 V
18 34 V
28 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
29 34 V
57 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
14 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
31 34 V
34 33 V
35 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
38 33 V
76 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
99 34 V
15 33 V
91 34 V
50 34 V
30 34 V
0 34 V
31 33 V
61 34 V
41 34 V
67 34 V
47 34 V
153 33 V
168 34 V
117 34 V
158 34 V
255 34 V
200 33 V
0 34 V
100 34 V
99 34 V
100 34 V
57 33 V
114 34 V
0 34 V
114 34 V
0 34 V
115 33 V
0 34 V
912 34 V
1527 560 Pls
1527 594 Pls
1527 628 Pls
1527 662 Pls
1527 696 Pls
1527 729 Pls
1527 763 Pls
1527 797 Pls
1527 831 Pls
1527 865 Pls
1527 898 Pls
1527 932 Pls
1527 966 Pls
1527 1000 Pls
1527 1034 Pls
1527 1067 Pls
1527 1101 Pls
1527 1135 Pls
1527 1169 Pls
1527 1203 Pls
1527 1236 Pls
1527 1270 Pls
1527 1304 Pls
1527 1338 Pls
1527 1372 Pls
1527 1405 Pls
1527 1439 Pls
1527 1473 Pls
1527 1507 Pls
1527 1541 Pls
1527 1575 Pls
1527 1608 Pls
1527 1642 Pls
1527 1676 Pls
1527 1710 Pls
1527 1744 Pls
1527 1777 Pls
1527 1811 Pls
1527 1845 Pls
1560 1879 Pls
1563 1913 Pls
1580 1946 Pls
1584 1980 Pls
1584 2014 Pls
1584 2048 Pls
1588 2082 Pls
1588 2115 Pls
1593 2149 Pls
1593 2183 Pls
1599 2217 Pls
1611 2251 Pls
1633 2284 Pls
1641 2318 Pls
1641 2352 Pls
1641 2386 Pls
1649 2420 Pls
1649 2453 Pls
1660 2487 Pls
1695 2521 Pls
1755 2555 Pls
1874 2589 Pls
1889 2622 Pls
1908 2656 Pls
1908 2690 Pls
1926 2724 Pls
1926 2758 Pls
1926 2791 Pls
1943 2825 Pls
1943 2859 Pls
1945 2893 Pls
1962 2927 Pls
1974 2960 Pls
1983 2994 Pls
1998 3028 Pls
2026 3062 Pls
2026 3096 Pls
2026 3129 Pls
2079 3163 Pls
2097 3197 Pls
2125 3231 Pls
2125 3265 Pls
2125 3298 Pls
2154 3332 Pls
2211 3366 Pls
2211 3400 Pls
2211 3434 Pls
2211 3467 Pls
2225 3501 Pls
2225 3535 Pls
2225 3569 Pls
2256 3603 Pls
2290 3636 Pls
2325 3670 Pls
2325 3704 Pls
2325 3738 Pls
2325 3772 Pls
2363 3805 Pls
2439 3839 Pls
2439 3873 Pls
2439 3907 Pls
2538 3941 Pls
2553 3974 Pls
2644 4008 Pls
2694 4042 Pls
2724 4076 Pls
2724 4110 Pls
2755 4143 Pls
2816 4177 Pls
2857 4211 Pls
2924 4245 Pls
2971 4279 Pls
3124 4312 Pls
3292 4346 Pls
3409 4380 Pls
3567 4414 Pls
3822 4448 Pls
4022 4481 Pls
4022 4515 Pls
4122 4549 Pls
4221 4583 Pls
4321 4617 Pls
4378 4650 Pls
4492 4684 Pls
4492 4718 Pls
4606 4752 Pls
4606 4786 Pls
4721 4819 Pls
4721 4853 Pls
5633 4887 Pls
6748 4767 Pls
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6465 4627 M
(Hotz) Rshow
6549 4627 M
399 0 V
1527 560 M
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
33 34 V
1 34 V
2 34 V
0 33 V
2 34 V
19 34 V
4 34 V
5 34 V
3 33 V
3 34 V
14 34 V
28 34 V
31 34 V
209 34 V
26 33 V
1 34 V
0 34 V
18 34 V
0 34 V
19 33 V
38 34 V
23 34 V
20 34 V
14 34 V
19 33 V
38 34 V
0 34 V
28 34 V
16 34 V
13 33 V
38 34 V
10 34 V
9 34 V
0 34 V
14 33 V
27 34 V
6 34 V
31 34 V
36 34 V
0 33 V
67 34 V
47 34 V
36 34 V
78 34 V
38 33 V
33 34 V
43 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
57 34 V
31 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
36 33 V
25 34 V
41 34 V
67 34 V
0 34 V
54 33 V
46 34 V
0 34 V
100 34 V
0 34 V
57 33 V
42 34 V
15 34 V
0 34 V
54 34 V
60 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
17 34 V
62 34 V
25 33 V
10 34 V
57 34 V
57 34 V
9 34 V
156 33 V
88 34 V
178 34 V
11 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
100 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
99 33 V
157 34 V
114 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
114 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
115 34 V
114 34 V
185 33 V
100 34 V
0 34 V
513 34 V
0 34 V
114 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
1527 560 Crs
1527 594 Crs
1527 628 Crs
1527 662 Crs
1527 696 Crs
1527 729 Crs
1527 763 Crs
1527 797 Crs
1527 831 Crs
1527 865 Crs
1527 898 Crs
1527 932 Crs
1527 966 Crs
1527 1000 Crs
1527 1034 Crs
1527 1067 Crs
1527 1101 Crs
1560 1135 Crs
1561 1169 Crs
1563 1203 Crs
1563 1236 Crs
1565 1270 Crs
1584 1304 Crs
1588 1338 Crs
1593 1372 Crs
1596 1405 Crs
1599 1439 Crs
1613 1473 Crs
1641 1507 Crs
1672 1541 Crs
1881 1575 Crs
1907 1608 Crs
1908 1642 Crs
1908 1676 Crs
1926 1710 Crs
1926 1744 Crs
1945 1777 Crs
1983 1811 Crs
2006 1845 Crs
2026 1879 Crs
2040 1913 Crs
2059 1946 Crs
2097 1980 Crs
2097 2014 Crs
2125 2048 Crs
2141 2082 Crs
2154 2115 Crs
2192 2149 Crs
2202 2183 Crs
2211 2217 Crs
2211 2251 Crs
2225 2284 Crs
2252 2318 Crs
2258 2352 Crs
2289 2386 Crs
2325 2420 Crs
2325 2453 Crs
2392 2487 Crs
2439 2521 Crs
2475 2555 Crs
2553 2589 Crs
2591 2622 Crs
2624 2656 Crs
2667 2690 Crs
2667 2724 Crs
2667 2758 Crs
2667 2791 Crs
2724 2825 Crs
2755 2859 Crs
2755 2893 Crs
2755 2927 Crs
2791 2960 Crs
2816 2994 Crs
2857 3028 Crs
2924 3062 Crs
2924 3096 Crs
2978 3129 Crs
3024 3163 Crs
3024 3197 Crs
3124 3231 Crs
3124 3265 Crs
3181 3298 Crs
3223 3332 Crs
3238 3366 Crs
3238 3400 Crs
3292 3434 Crs
3352 3467 Crs
3352 3501 Crs
3352 3535 Crs
3369 3569 Crs
3431 3603 Crs
3456 3636 Crs
3466 3670 Crs
3523 3704 Crs
3580 3738 Crs
3589 3772 Crs
3745 3805 Crs
3833 3839 Crs
4011 3873 Crs
4022 3907 Crs
4022 3941 Crs
4022 3974 Crs
4122 4008 Crs
4122 4042 Crs
4122 4076 Crs
4122 4110 Crs
4221 4143 Crs
4378 4177 Crs
4492 4211 Crs
4492 4245 Crs
4492 4279 Crs
4492 4312 Crs
4492 4346 Crs
4492 4380 Crs
4492 4414 Crs
4606 4448 Crs
4606 4481 Crs
4606 4515 Crs
4606 4549 Crs
4721 4583 Crs
4835 4617 Crs
5020 4650 Crs
5120 4684 Crs
5120 4718 Crs
5633 4752 Crs
5633 4786 Crs
5747 4819 Crs
5747 4853 Crs
5747 4887 Crs
6748 4627 Crs
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6465 4487 M
(Cartesian) Rshow
6549 4487 M
399 0 V
1527 560 M
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
36 34 V
17 34 V
4 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
4 34 V
5 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
27 34 V
21 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
8 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
11 34 V
106 34 V
108 33 V
15 34 V
0 34 V
19 34 V
18 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
17 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
15 33 V
4 34 V
0 34 V
16 34 V
5 34 V
35 33 V
8 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
71 34 V
28 33 V
16 34 V
70 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
14 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
11 34 V
53 34 V
36 34 V
0 33 V
100 34 V
14 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
0 33 V
99 34 V
53 34 V
76 34 V
57 34 V
0 33 V
31 34 V
0 34 V
102 34 V
21 34 V
46 33 V
100 34 V
100 34 V
245 34 V
287 34 V
266 33 V
100 34 V
199 34 V
0 34 V
43 34 V
114 33 V
114 34 V
0 34 V
0 34 V
229 34 V
0 33 V
0 34 V
912 34 V
1527 560 Star
1527 594 Star
1527 628 Star
1527 662 Star
1527 696 Star
1527 729 Star
1527 763 Star
1527 797 Star
1527 831 Star
1527 865 Star
1527 898 Star
1527 932 Star
1527 966 Star
1527 1000 Star
1527 1034 Star
1527 1067 Star
1527 1101 Star
1527 1135 Star
1527 1169 Star
1527 1203 Star
1527 1236 Star
1527 1270 Star
1527 1304 Star
1527 1338 Star
1527 1372 Star
1527 1405 Star
1527 1439 Star
1527 1473 Star
1527 1507 Star
1527 1541 Star
1527 1575 Star
1527 1608 Star
1527 1642 Star
1527 1676 Star
1527 1710 Star
1527 1744 Star
1527 1777 Star
1527 1811 Star
1527 1845 Star
1527 1879 Star
1527 1913 Star
1527 1946 Star
1563 1980 Star
1580 2014 Star
1584 2048 Star
1584 2082 Star
1584 2115 Star
1584 2149 Star
1588 2183 Star
1593 2217 Star
1593 2251 Star
1593 2284 Star
1620 2318 Star
1641 2352 Star
1641 2386 Star
1641 2420 Star
1649 2453 Star
1649 2487 Star
1649 2521 Star
1660 2555 Star
1766 2589 Star
1874 2622 Star
1889 2656 Star
1889 2690 Star
1908 2724 Star
1926 2758 Star
1926 2791 Star
1926 2825 Star
1943 2859 Star
1943 2893 Star
1943 2927 Star
1958 2960 Star
1962 2994 Star
1962 3028 Star
1978 3062 Star
1983 3096 Star
2018 3129 Star
2026 3163 Star
2026 3197 Star
2026 3231 Star
2097 3265 Star
2125 3298 Star
2141 3332 Star
2211 3366 Star
2211 3400 Star
2211 3434 Star
2211 3467 Star
2211 3501 Star
2211 3535 Star
2225 3569 Star
2225 3603 Star
2225 3636 Star
2225 3670 Star
2236 3704 Star
2289 3738 Star
2325 3772 Star
2325 3805 Star
2425 3839 Star
2439 3873 Star
2439 3907 Star
2439 3941 Star
2439 3974 Star
2538 4008 Star
2591 4042 Star
2667 4076 Star
2724 4110 Star
2724 4143 Star
2755 4177 Star
2755 4211 Star
2857 4245 Star
2878 4279 Star
2924 4312 Star
3024 4346 Star
3124 4380 Star
3369 4414 Star
3656 4448 Star
3922 4481 Star
4022 4515 Star
4221 4549 Star
4221 4583 Star
4264 4617 Star
4378 4650 Star
4492 4684 Star
4492 4718 Star
4492 4752 Star
4721 4786 Star
4721 4819 Star
4721 4853 Star
5633 4887 Star
6748 4487 Star
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6465 4347 M
(Random) Rshow
6549 4347 M
399 0 V
1846 560 M
65 34 V
12 34 V
8 34 V
17 34 V
14 33 V
9 34 V
12 34 V
4 34 V
12 34 V
5 33 V
9 34 V
8 34 V
12 34 V
8 34 V
16 33 V
31 34 V
317 34 V
128 34 V
45 34 V
33 33 V
22 34 V
24 34 V
20 34 V
13 34 V
8 33 V
14 34 V
8 34 V
20 34 V
12 34 V
13 34 V
16 33 V
7 34 V
9 34 V
8 34 V
13 34 V
15 33 V
8 34 V
10 34 V
12 34 V
10 34 V
15 33 V
7 34 V
12 34 V
9 34 V
18 34 V
11 33 V
9 34 V
11 34 V
16 34 V
19 34 V
9 33 V
22 34 V
23 34 V
16 34 V
15 34 V
26 33 V
55 34 V
39 34 V
45 34 V
91 34 V
90 33 V
117 34 V
126 34 V
103 34 V
80 34 V
53 33 V
49 34 V
42 34 V
32 34 V
31 34 V
16 33 V
26 34 V
26 34 V
26 34 V
13 34 V
17 33 V
24 34 V
25 34 V
14 34 V
17 34 V
12 33 V
18 34 V
14 34 V
16 34 V
14 34 V
14 33 V
19 34 V
26 34 V
20 34 V
20 34 V
20 33 V
24 34 V
19 34 V
23 34 V
14 34 V
16 33 V
23 34 V
16 34 V
12 34 V
17 34 V
11 33 V
14 34 V
11 34 V
9 34 V
13 34 V
14 33 V
13 34 V
17 34 V
11 34 V
12 34 V
12 33 V
9 34 V
12 34 V
14 34 V
19 34 V
22 33 V
18 34 V
12 34 V
19 34 V
19 34 V
19 33 V
28 34 V
24 34 V
25 34 V
28 34 V
44 33 V
72 34 V
140 34 V
1846 560 Box
1911 594 Box
1923 628 Box
1931 662 Box
1948 696 Box
1962 729 Box
1971 763 Box
1983 797 Box
1987 831 Box
1999 865 Box
2004 898 Box
2013 932 Box
2021 966 Box
2033 1000 Box
2041 1034 Box
2057 1067 Box
2088 1101 Box
2405 1135 Box
2533 1169 Box
2578 1203 Box
2611 1236 Box
2633 1270 Box
2657 1304 Box
2677 1338 Box
2690 1372 Box
2698 1405 Box
2712 1439 Box
2720 1473 Box
2740 1507 Box
2752 1541 Box
2765 1575 Box
2781 1608 Box
2788 1642 Box
2797 1676 Box
2805 1710 Box
2818 1744 Box
2833 1777 Box
2841 1811 Box
2851 1845 Box
2863 1879 Box
2873 1913 Box
2888 1946 Box
2895 1980 Box
2907 2014 Box
2916 2048 Box
2934 2082 Box
2945 2115 Box
2954 2149 Box
2965 2183 Box
2981 2217 Box
3000 2251 Box
3009 2284 Box
3031 2318 Box
3054 2352 Box
3070 2386 Box
3085 2420 Box
3111 2453 Box
3166 2487 Box
3205 2521 Box
3250 2555 Box
3341 2589 Box
3431 2622 Box
3548 2656 Box
3674 2690 Box
3777 2724 Box
3857 2758 Box
3910 2791 Box
3959 2825 Box
4001 2859 Box
4033 2893 Box
4064 2927 Box
4080 2960 Box
4106 2994 Box
4132 3028 Box
4158 3062 Box
4171 3096 Box
4188 3129 Box
4212 3163 Box
4237 3197 Box
4251 3231 Box
4268 3265 Box
4280 3298 Box
4298 3332 Box
4312 3366 Box
4328 3400 Box
4342 3434 Box
4356 3467 Box
4375 3501 Box
4401 3535 Box
4421 3569 Box
4441 3603 Box
4461 3636 Box
4485 3670 Box
4504 3704 Box
4527 3738 Box
4541 3772 Box
4557 3805 Box
4580 3839 Box
4596 3873 Box
4608 3907 Box
4625 3941 Box
4636 3974 Box
4650 4008 Box
4661 4042 Box
4670 4076 Box
4683 4110 Box
4697 4143 Box
4710 4177 Box
4727 4211 Box
4738 4245 Box
4750 4279 Box
4762 4312 Box
4771 4346 Box
4783 4380 Box
4797 4414 Box
4816 4448 Box
4838 4481 Box
4856 4515 Box
4868 4549 Box
4887 4583 Box
4906 4617 Box
4925 4650 Box
4953 4684 Box
4977 4718 Box
5002 4752 Box
5030 4786 Box
5074 4819 Box
5146 4853 Box
5286 4887 Box
6748 4347 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 -208 3378 a Fq(Fig.)d(12.)38 b Fs(CDF)16 b(of)h(Latency)i(Str)n(etc)o
(h)f(adjusted)h(to)e(r)n(educe)h(in\003ated)h(str)n(etc)o(h)f(values)
1988 1723 y
 16379201 11301648 3289088 3289088 26970521 19866091 startTexFig
 1988 1723 a
%%BeginDocument: fig/cdf_0402_12B_10S.eps
%!PS-Adobe-2.0 EPSF-2.0
%%Title: graph.ps
%%Creator: gnuplot 3.5 (pre 3.6) patchlevel beta 340
%%CreationDate: Fri Jul 20 15:52:21 2001
%%DocumentFonts: (atend)
%%BoundingBox: 50 50 410 302
%%Orientation: Portrait
%%EndComments
/gnudict 120 dict def
gnudict begin
/Color false def
/Solid false def
/gnulinewidth 5.000 def
/userlinewidth gnulinewidth def
/vshift -46 def
/dl {10 mul} def
/hpt_ 31.5 def
/vpt_ 31.5 def
/hpt hpt_ def
/vpt vpt_ def
/M {moveto} bind def
/L {lineto} bind def
/R {rmoveto} bind def
/V {rlineto} bind def
/vpt2 vpt 2 mul def
/hpt2 hpt 2 mul def
/Lshow { currentpoint stroke M
  0 vshift R show } def
/Rshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop neg vshift R show } def
/Cshow { currentpoint stroke M
  dup stringwidth pop -2 div vshift R show } def
/UP { dup vpt_ mul /vpt exch def hpt_ mul /hpt exch def
  /hpt2 hpt 2 mul def /vpt2 vpt 2 mul def } def
/DL { Color {setrgbcolor Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash }
 {pop pop pop Solid {pop []} if 0 setdash} ifelse } def
/BL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 mul setlinewidth } def
/AL { stroke gnulinewidth 2 div setlinewidth } def
/UL { gnulinewidth mul /userlinewidth exch def } def
/PL { stroke userlinewidth setlinewidth } def
/LTb { BL [] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LTa { AL [1 dl 2 dl] 0 setdash 0 0 0 setrgbcolor } def
/LT0 { PL [] 0 1 0 DL } def
/LT1 { PL [4 dl 2 dl] 0 0 1 DL } def
/LT2 { PL [2 dl 3 dl] 1 0 0 DL } def
/LT3 { PL [1 dl 1.5 dl] 1 0 1 DL } def
/LT4 { PL [5 dl 2 dl 1 dl 2 dl] 0 1 1 DL } def
/LT5 { PL [4 dl 3 dl 1 dl 3 dl] 1 1 0 DL } def
/LT6 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0 0 0 DL } def
/LT7 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 1 0.3 0 DL } def
/LT8 { PL [2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 2 dl 4 dl] 0.5 0.5 0.5 DL } def
/Pnt { stroke [] 0 setdash
   gsave 1 setlinecap M 0 0 V stroke grestore } def
/Dia { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Pls { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt sub M 0 vpt2 V
  currentpoint stroke M
  hpt neg vpt neg R hpt2 0 V stroke
  } def
/Box { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke
  Pnt } def
/Crs { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  hpt2 vpt2 neg V currentpoint stroke M
  hpt2 neg 0 R hpt2 vpt2 V stroke } def
/TriU { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/Star { 2 copy Pls Crs } def
/BoxF { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V  hpt2 0 V  0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V  closepath fill } def
/TriUF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath fill } def
/TriD { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke
  Pnt  } def
/TriDF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath fill} def
/DiaF { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath fill } def
/Pent { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore Pnt } def
/PentF { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath fill grestore } def
/Circle { stroke [] 0 setdash 2 copy
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke Pnt } def
/CircleF { stroke [] 0 setdash hpt 0 360 arc fill } def
/C0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto vpt 90 450  arc } bind def
/C1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy        moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 270 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 90 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 0 270 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
      2 copy  vpt 270 450 arc closepath fill
              vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy moveto vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy vpt 90 180 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 180 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 270 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C13 { BL [] 0 setdash  2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 0 90 arc closepath fill
       2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 180 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/C14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto
       2 copy  vpt 90 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc } bind def
/C15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt 0 360 arc closepath fill
               vpt 0 360 arc closepath } bind def
/Rec   { newpath 4 2 roll moveto 1 index 0 rlineto 0 exch rlineto
       neg 0 rlineto closepath } bind def
/Square { dup Rec } bind def
/Bsquare { vpt sub exch vpt sub exch vpt2 Square } bind def
/S0 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy moveto 0 vpt rlineto BL Bsquare } bind def
/S1 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S2 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S3 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S4 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S5 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy 2 copy vpt Square fill
       exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S6 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S7 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S8 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S9 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt vpt2 Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S10 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S11 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy vpt sub vpt Square fill 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       Bsquare } bind def
/S12 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill Bsquare } bind def
/S13 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S14 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt sub vpt2 vpt Rec fill
       2 copy exch vpt sub exch vpt Square fill Bsquare } bind def
/S15 { BL [] 0 setdash 2 copy Bsquare fill Bsquare } bind def
/D0 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S0 stroke grestore } bind def
/D1 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S1 stroke grestore } bind def
/D2 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S2 stroke grestore } bind def
/D3 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S3 stroke grestore } bind def
/D4 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S4 stroke grestore } bind def
/D5 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S5 stroke grestore } bind def
/D6 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S6 stroke grestore } bind def
/D7 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S7 stroke grestore } bind def
/D8 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S8 stroke grestore } bind def
/D9 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S9 stroke grestore } bind def
/D10 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S10 stroke grestore } bind def
/D11 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S11 stroke grestore } bind def
/D12 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S12 stroke grestore } bind def
/D13 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S13 stroke grestore } bind def
/D14 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S14 stroke grestore } bind def
/D15 { gsave translate 45 rotate 0 0 S15 stroke grestore } bind def
/DiaE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt add M
  hpt neg vpt neg V hpt vpt neg V
  hpt vpt V hpt neg vpt V closepath stroke } def
/BoxE { stroke [] 0 setdash exch hpt sub exch vpt add M
  0 vpt2 neg V hpt2 0 V 0 vpt2 V
  hpt2 neg 0 V closepath stroke } def
/TriUE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul add M
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/TriDE { stroke [] 0 setdash vpt 1.12 mul sub M
  hpt neg vpt 1.62 mul V
  hpt 2 mul 0 V
  hpt neg vpt -1.62 mul V closepath stroke } def
/PentE { stroke [] 0 setdash gsave
  translate 0 hpt M 4 {72 rotate 0 hpt L} repeat
  closepath stroke grestore } def
/CircE { stroke [] 0 setdash 
  hpt 0 360 arc stroke } def
/BoxFill { gsave Rec 1 setgray fill grestore } def
end
%%EndProlog
gnudict begin
gsave
50 50 translate
0.050 0.050 scale
0 setgray
newpath
(Helvetica) findfont 140 scalefont setfont
LTb
728 560 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 560 M
(0) Rshow
728 994 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
644 994 M
(10) Rshow
728 1428 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(20) Rshow
728 1862 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(30) Rshow
728 2296 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(40) Rshow
728 2730 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(50) Rshow
728 3164 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(60) Rshow
728 3598 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(70) Rshow
728 4032 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(80) Rshow
728 4466 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(90) Rshow
728 4900 M
63 0 V
6325 0 R
-63 0 V
-6409 0 R
(100) Rshow
728 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
728 420 M
(1) Cshow
1438 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(2) Cshow
2148 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(3) Cshow
2857 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(4) Cshow
3567 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(5) Cshow
4277 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(6) Cshow
4987 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(7) Cshow
5696 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(8) Cshow
6406 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(9) Cshow
7116 560 M
0 63 V
0 4277 R
0 -63 V
0 -4417 R
(10) Cshow
LTb
728 560 M
6388 0 V
0 4340 V
-6388 0 V
728 560 L
140 2730 M
currentpoint gsave translate 90 rotate 0 0 M
(Percentage of nodes) Cshow
grestore
3922 210 M
(Latency Stretch) Cshow
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT0
6465 4767 M
(Binning) Rshow
6549 4767 M
399 0 V
728 614 M
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
33 53 V
11 54 V
24 53 V
16 54 V
1 54 V
16 53 V
0 54 V
7 53 V
4 54 V
3 53 V
3 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
14 54 V
4 53 V
31 54 V
10 53 V
10 54 V
12 54 V
11 53 V
42 54 V
26 53 V
52 54 V
25 54 V
19 53 V
16 54 V
11 53 V
5 54 V
59 53 V
8 54 V
10 54 V
14 53 V
58 54 V
18 53 V
89 54 V
137 54 V
147 53 V
372 54 V
811 53 V
59 54 V
829 53 V
295 54 V
728 614 Pls
728 667 Pls
728 721 Pls
728 774 Pls
728 828 Pls
728 881 Pls
728 935 Pls
728 989 Pls
728 1042 Pls
728 1096 Pls
728 1149 Pls
728 1203 Pls
728 1257 Pls
728 1310 Pls
728 1364 Pls
728 1417 Pls
728 1471 Pls
728 1524 Pls
728 1578 Pls
728 1632 Pls
728 1685 Pls
728 1739 Pls
728 1792 Pls
728 1846 Pls
728 1900 Pls
728 1953 Pls
728 2007 Pls
728 2060 Pls
728 2114 Pls
728 2167 Pls
728 2221 Pls
728 2275 Pls
728 2328 Pls
728 2382 Pls
728 2435 Pls
728 2489 Pls
728 2542 Pls
728 2596 Pls
728 2650 Pls
761 2703 Pls
772 2757 Pls
796 2810 Pls
812 2864 Pls
813 2918 Pls
829 2971 Pls
829 3025 Pls
836 3078 Pls
840 3132 Pls
843 3185 Pls
846 3239 Pls
846 3293 Pls
846 3346 Pls
860 3400 Pls
864 3453 Pls
895 3507 Pls
905 3560 Pls
915 3614 Pls
927 3668 Pls
938 3721 Pls
980 3775 Pls
1006 3828 Pls
1058 3882 Pls
1083 3936 Pls
1102 3989 Pls
1118 4043 Pls
1129 4096 Pls
1134 4150 Pls
1193 4203 Pls
1201 4257 Pls
1211 4311 Pls
1225 4364 Pls
1283 4418 Pls
1301 4471 Pls
1390 4525 Pls
1527 4579 Pls
1674 4632 Pls
2046 4686 Pls
2857 4739 Pls
2916 4793 Pls
3745 4846 Pls
4040 4900 Pls
6748 4767 Pls
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT1
6465 4627 M
(Hotz) Rshow
6549 4627 M
399 0 V
728 614 M
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
31 53 V
20 54 V
6 54 V
27 53 V
5 54 V
4 53 V
16 54 V
6 53 V
20 54 V
0 54 V
29 53 V
49 54 V
5 53 V
34 54 V
21 54 V
11 53 V
6 54 V
25 53 V
19 54 V
21 53 V
0 54 V
21 54 V
11 53 V
200 54 V
123 53 V
112 54 V
243 54 V
253 53 V
0 54 V
870 53 V
83 54 V
568 53 V
142 54 V
728 614 Crs
728 667 Crs
728 721 Crs
728 774 Crs
728 828 Crs
728 881 Crs
728 935 Crs
728 989 Crs
728 1042 Crs
728 1096 Crs
728 1149 Crs
728 1203 Crs
728 1257 Crs
728 1310 Crs
728 1364 Crs
728 1417 Crs
728 1471 Crs
728 1524 Crs
728 1578 Crs
728 1632 Crs
728 1685 Crs
728 1739 Crs
728 1792 Crs
728 1846 Crs
728 1900 Crs
728 1953 Crs
728 2007 Crs
728 2060 Crs
728 2114 Crs
728 2167 Crs
728 2221 Crs
728 2275 Crs
728 2328 Crs
728 2382 Crs
728 2435 Crs
728 2489 Crs
728 2542 Crs
728 2596 Crs
728 2650 Crs
728 2703 Crs
728 2757 Crs
728 2810 Crs
728 2864 Crs
728 2918 Crs
728 2971 Crs
728 3025 Crs
728 3078 Crs
728 3132 Crs
759 3185 Crs
779 3239 Crs
785 3293 Crs
812 3346 Crs
817 3400 Crs
821 3453 Crs
837 3507 Crs
843 3560 Crs
863 3614 Crs
863 3668 Crs
892 3721 Crs
941 3775 Crs
946 3828 Crs
980 3882 Crs
1001 3936 Crs
1012 3989 Crs
1018 4043 Crs
1043 4096 Crs
1062 4150 Crs
1083 4203 Crs
1083 4257 Crs
1104 4311 Crs
1115 4364 Crs
1315 4418 Crs
1438 4471 Crs
1550 4525 Crs
1793 4579 Crs
2046 4632 Crs
2046 4686 Crs
2916 4739 Crs
2999 4793 Crs
3567 4846 Crs
3709 4900 Crs
6748 4627 Crs
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT2
6465 4487 M
(Cartesian) Rshow
6549 4487 M
399 0 V
728 614 M
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
0 54 V
0 54 V
31 53 V
2 54 V
29 53 V
7 54 V
15 53 V
17 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
13 54 V
1 53 V
18 54 V
3 53 V
16 54 V
12 54 V
41 53 V
46 54 V
7 53 V
81 54 V
16 54 V
21 53 V
30 54 V
5 53 V
148 54 V
68 53 V
18 54 V
37 54 V
28 53 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
118 54 V
490 54 V
102 53 V
147 54 V
1783 53 V
158 54 V
1736 53 V
1102 54 V
728 614 Star
728 667 Star
728 721 Star
728 774 Star
728 828 Star
728 881 Star
728 935 Star
728 989 Star
728 1042 Star
728 1096 Star
728 1149 Star
728 1203 Star
728 1257 Star
728 1310 Star
728 1364 Star
728 1417 Star
728 1471 Star
728 1524 Star
728 1578 Star
728 1632 Star
728 1685 Star
728 1739 Star
728 1792 Star
728 1846 Star
728 1900 Star
728 1953 Star
728 2007 Star
728 2060 Star
728 2114 Star
728 2167 Star
728 2221 Star
728 2275 Star
728 2328 Star
728 2382 Star
728 2435 Star
728 2489 Star
728 2542 Star
728 2596 Star
728 2650 Star
728 2703 Star
728 2757 Star
728 2810 Star
728 2864 Star
728 2918 Star
759 2971 Star
761 3025 Star
790 3078 Star
797 3132 Star
812 3185 Star
829 3239 Star
829 3293 Star
829 3346 Star
842 3400 Star
843 3453 Star
861 3507 Star
864 3560 Star
880 3614 Star
892 3668 Star
933 3721 Star
979 3775 Star
986 3828 Star
1067 3882 Star
1083 3936 Star
1104 3989 Star
1134 4043 Star
1139 4096 Star
1287 4150 Star
1355 4203 Star
1373 4257 Star
1410 4311 Star
1438 4364 Star
1438 4418 Star
1438 4471 Star
1556 4525 Star
2046 4579 Star
2148 4632 Star
2295 4686 Star
4078 4739 Star
4236 4793 Star
5972 4846 Star
7074 4900 Star
6748 4487 Star
1.000 UP
1.000 UL
LT3
6465 4347 M
(Random) Rshow
6549 4347 M
399 0 V
728 614 M
152 53 V
69 54 V
2 53 V
27 54 V
37 53 V
110 54 V
7 54 V
10 53 V
29 54 V
34 53 V
63 54 V
17 54 V
29 53 V
5 54 V
0 53 V
9 54 V
2 53 V
20 54 V
40 54 V
9 53 V
5 54 V
17 53 V
20 54 V
9 54 V
11 53 V
26 54 V
11 53 V
14 54 V
9 53 V
5 54 V
4 54 V
13 53 V
20 54 V
20 53 V
43 54 V
15 53 V
93 54 V
7 54 V
2 53 V
10 54 V
2 53 V
39 54 V
34 54 V
16 53 V
4 54 V
24 53 V
3 54 V
114 53 V
32 54 V
2 54 V
4 53 V
77 54 V
22 53 V
63 54 V
49 53 V
19 54 V
44 54 V
72 53 V
8 54 V
44 53 V
52 54 V
0 54 V
0 53 V
96 54 V
16 53 V
180 54 V
79 53 V
58 54 V
333 54 V
30 53 V
410 54 V
71 53 V
256 54 V
70 54 V
489 53 V
90 54 V
213 53 V
899 54 V
196 53 V
1029 54 V
728 614 Box
880 667 Box
949 721 Box
951 774 Box
978 828 Box
1015 881 Box
1125 935 Box
1132 989 Box
1142 1042 Box
1171 1096 Box
1205 1149 Box
1268 1203 Box
1285 1257 Box
1314 1310 Box
1319 1364 Box
1319 1417 Box
1328 1471 Box
1330 1524 Box
1350 1578 Box
1390 1632 Box
1399 1685 Box
1404 1739 Box
1421 1792 Box
1441 1846 Box
1450 1900 Box
1461 1953 Box
1487 2007 Box
1498 2060 Box
1512 2114 Box
1521 2167 Box
1526 2221 Box
1530 2275 Box
1543 2328 Box
1563 2382 Box
1583 2435 Box
1626 2489 Box
1641 2542 Box
1734 2596 Box
1741 2650 Box
1743 2703 Box
1753 2757 Box
1755 2810 Box
1794 2864 Box
1828 2918 Box
1844 2971 Box
1848 3025 Box
1872 3078 Box
1875 3132 Box
1989 3185 Box
2021 3239 Box
2023 3293 Box
2027 3346 Box
2104 3400 Box
2126 3453 Box
2189 3507 Box
2238 3560 Box
2257 3614 Box
2301 3668 Box
2373 3721 Box
2381 3775 Box
2425 3828 Box
2477 3882 Box
2477 3936 Box
2477 3989 Box
2573 4043 Box
2589 4096 Box
2769 4150 Box
2848 4203 Box
2906 4257 Box
3239 4311 Box
3269 4364 Box
3679 4418 Box
3750 4471 Box
4006 4525 Box
4076 4579 Box
4565 4632 Box
4655 4686 Box
4868 4739 Box
5767 4793 Box
5963 4846 Box
6992 4900 Box
6748 4347 Box
stroke
grestore
end
showpage
%%Trailer
%%DocumentFonts: Helvetica

%%EndDocument

 endTexFig
 2377 3378 a Fq(Fig.)f(13.)37 b Fs(CDF)16 b(of)h(latency)j(str)n(etc)o
(h)e(for)f(NLANR)f(data)-260 3475 y Fp([32])30 b(uses)i(latenc)o(y)e
(measurements)g(to)h(a)h(set)g(of)f(well)h(kno)n(wn)e(land-)-260
3574 y(marks)19 b(to)g(determine)f(the)h Fm(g)o(eo)o(gr)o(aphic)e
Fp(locality)i(of)g(Internet)f(hosts.)25 b(T)-7 b(o)-260
3673 y(determine)31 b(geographic)f(closeness)j(between)e(pairs)i(of)f
(hosts,)j(Geo-)-260 3771 y(Ping)26 b(uses)h(a)g(distance)f(metric)g
(similar)g(to)g(the)h(Cartesian)f(metric)g(de-)-260 3870
y(scribed)18 b(in)h(Section)f(IV.)24 b(The)19 b(authors)e(in)i([14])e
(describe)h(a)h(centralized)-260 3969 y(clustering)27
b(engine)g(that)h(uses)g(BGP)h(routing)d(table)i(dumps.)47
b(F)o(or)28 b(the)-260 4068 y(reasons)c(described)e(in)j(Section)e(I)h
(we)h(opted)e(for)g(a)i(decentralized)d(so-)-260 4167
y(lution)e(based)f(only)h(on)g(end-to-end)d(latenc)o(y)i(measurements.)
-177 4290 y(In)44 b(the)h(conte)o(xt)e(of)h(application-le)n(v)o(el)e
(multicast,)50 b(the)45 b(authors)-260 4388 y(in)31 b([28],)g([15],)h
([27])d(propose)g(heuristics)h(for)g(nodes)f(in)i(a)g(multicast)-260
4487 y(o)o(v)o(erlay)18 b(to)h(gradually)f(impro)o(v)o(e)f(the)i(o)o(v)
o(erlay)e(structure)i(to)g(better)g(map)-260 4586 y(onto)j(topology)-5
b(.)30 b(Both)23 b(schemes)f(basically)h(ha)n(v)o(e)f(nodes)g
(periodically)-260 4685 y(probe)i(other)g(nodes)h(to)g(e)n(v)n(aluate)f
(the)h(usefulness)g(of)f(switching)h(their)-260 4784
y(neighbors)j(in)h(the)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)-5 b(.)51 b(In)29
b(comparison,)h(our)e(binning)g(scheme)-260 4882 y(for)23
b(topology)e(a)o(w)o(areness)i(operates)g(on)g(short)g(timescales)h
(and)f(is,)i(we)-260 4981 y(belie)n(v)o(e,)19 b(more)g(lightweight.)
-177 5104 y(Our)f(initial)h(w)o(ork)f(on)h(CANs)g([4])f(e)o(xplores)g
(a)h(number)e(of)h(heuristics)-260 5203 y(to)26 b(lo)n(wer)g(the)g
(latenc)o(y)f(of)h(CAN)h(routing.)41 b(These)26 b(schemes)g(ho)n(we)n
(v)o(er)-260 5302 y(try)20 b(to)f(impro)o(v)o(e)f(the)h(selection)g(of)
h(paths)f(on)g(an)h(e)o(xisting)f(o)o(v)o(erlay)-5 b(.)22
b(Our)-260 5401 y(w)o(ork)f(in)h(this)h(paper)m(,)d(by)i(contrast,)f
(tries)i(to)f(impro)o(v)o(e)d(the)j(structure)f(of)-260
5499 y(the)f(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(itself.)-177 5622 y(The)41
b(authors)f(in)i([33])e(propose)f(a)j(serv)o(er)e(selection)h
(technique)1950 3475 y(where)30 b(clients)i(periodically)d(perform)g
(measurements)h(to)h(all)h(a)n(v)n(ail-)1950 3574 y(able)24
b(mirrors.)37 b(Binning-based)23 b(serv)o(er)g(selection)h(instead)h
(requires)e(a)1950 3673 y(one-time)c(measurement)f(\(with)i(possible)f
(periodic)g(refreshes\))g(by)h(the)1950 3771 y(client)26
b(to)g(a)g(small,)i(\002x)o(ed)d(set)i(of)e(landmarks.)41
b(In)25 b([24],)h(the)g(accurac)o(y)1950 3870 y(of)d(distance)h
(estimation)f(in)g(IDMaps)h(is)g(e)n(v)n(aluated)e(in)i(the)g(conte)o
(xt)e(of)1950 3969 y(serv)o(er)c(selection.)25 b(While)19
b(the)g(signi\002cant)g(dif)n(ferences)e(in)j(the)f(simula-)1950
4068 y(tion)g(en)m(vironment)c(mak)o(e)k(it)g(is)h(hard)e(to)h(dra)o(w)
f(an)o(y)g(direct)h(comparison,)1950 4167 y(our)i(serv)o(er)g
(selection)h(results)h(appear)e(at)h(least)h(comparable.)28
b(The)22 b(au-)1950 4265 y(thors)17 b(in)g([34])f(measure)g(the)h(the)g
(performance)d(of)j(certain)f(commercial)1950 4364 y(serv)o(er)22
b(selection)g(schemes.)32 b(Their)22 b(results)h(sho)n(w)g(that)f
(neither)g(of)h(the)1950 4463 y(measured)28 b(schemes)i(achie)n(v)o(e)f
(optimal)g(\(or)g(e)n(v)o(en)g(close)h(to)g(optimal\))1950
4562 y(serv)o(er)24 b(selection)h(b)n(ut)g(do)g(impro)o(v)o(e)e
(signi\002cantly)h(on)h(random)e(serv)o(er)1950 4661
y(selection.)58 b(In)31 b(vie)n(w)g(of)g(the)g(abo)o(v)o(e,)h(we)g
(\002nd)f(our)f(serv)o(er)h(selection)1950 4759 y(results)21
b(v)o(ery)e(encouraging.)2687 4894 y(V)t(I)t(.)46 b(C)t
Fq(O)t(N)t(C)t(L)t(U)t(S)t(I)t(O)t(N)2033 5030 y Fp(In)21
b(this)g(paper)m(,)f(we)i(describe)e(a)h(simple,)h(scalable,)f(binning)
e(scheme)1950 5128 y(that)30 b(can)g(be)g(used)g(to)g(infer)g(netw)o
(ork)f(proximity)f(information.)52 b(W)-7 b(e)1950 5227
y(apply)25 b(this)i(scheme)f(to)g(the)h(problem)d(of)i(topologically-a)
o(w)o(are)d(o)o(v)o(er)n(-)1950 5326 y(lay)j(construction)e(and)i(serv)
o(er)f(selection.)43 b(Our)25 b(results)i(indicate)e(that)1950
5425 y(e)n(v)o(en)j(rather)h(coarse-grained)e(topological)g
(information)g(can)i(signif-)1950 5524 y(icantly)g(impro)o(v)o(e)e
(application)h(performance.)50 b(The)29 b(beha)n(vior)f(of)h(all)1950
5622 y(the)24 b(schemes)f(we)h(tested)g(is)g(dependent)e(on)h(the)g
(nature)g(of)g(the)h(under)n(-)p eop
%%Page: 10 10
10 9 bop -260 -46 a Fp(lying)27 b(netw)o(ork)g(topology)-5
b(.)45 b(Interestingly)-5 b(,)27 b(our)g(results)h(using)f(actual)-260
52 y(Internet)f(traces)g(better)h(match)f(simulations)g(using)g(PLRGs)i
(than)e(the)-260 151 y(hierarchical)d(TS)i(topologies)e(possibly)h(pro)
o(viding)d(application-le)n(v)o(el)-260 250 y(corroboration)h(to)j(pre)
n(vious)f(w)o(ork)h(sho)n(wing)f(that)h(the)g(netw)o(ork-le)n(v)o(el)
-260 349 y(topology)20 b(of)j(the)f(Internet)g(is)h(well)g(modeled)e
(by)h(a)h(PLRG)g([21],)f([20].)-260 447 y(While)34 b(our)g(results)g
(indicate)f(that)h(a)g(small)h(number)d(of)h(landmarks)-260
546 y(yield)24 b(signi\002cant)g(impro)o(v)o(ements)e(which)i(ho)n(we)n
(v)o(er)m(,)f(le)n(v)o(els)h(of)n(f)g(quite)-260 645
y(quickly)-5 b(.)52 b(Similar)30 b(observ)n(ations)e(ha)n(v)o(e)h(been)
g(made)h(by)f(the)h(authors)-260 744 y(in)19 b([24],)e([17].)23
b(An)c(open)e(problem)g(w)o(ould)h(be)g(to)h(understand)d(just)j(ho)n
(w)-260 843 y(much)c(further)g(impro)o(v)o(ement)d(in)17
b(performance)c(might)i(be)h(possible)g(us-)-260 941
y(ing)k(sophisticated)f(topology)f(information.)414 1084
y(A)q Fq(C)t(K)t(N)t(O)r(W)t(L)t(E)t(D)t(G)t(M)t(E)t(N)t(T)t(S)-177
1224 y Fp(W)-7 b(e)30 b(w)o(ould)d(lik)o(e)i(to)g(thank)e(Ion)h(Stoica)
g(and)g(Eugene)f(Ng)h(for)g(use-)-260 1323 y(ful)21 b(discussions,)g
(Brad)g(Karp)g(for)f(the)h(DNS)h(root)e(name)h(serv)o(er)f(statis-)-260
1422 y(tics,)j(Y)-8 b(an)21 b(Chen)g(and)g(Morle)o(y)f(Mao)i(for)f
(help)g(with)g(the)h(NLANR)g(data)-260 1520 y(and)16
b(Hongsuda)e(T)-7 b(angmunarunkit)12 b(for)j(pro)o(viding)f(us)i(with)g
(the)g(Po)n(wer)n(-)-260 1619 y(La)o(w)k(Random)f(Graphs.)564
1762 y(R)t Fq(E)t(F)t(E)t(R)t(E)t(N)t(C)t(E)t(S)-260
1874 y([1])75 b(Gnutella,)27 b(\223http://gnutella.we)o(go.co)q(m,)-5
b(\224)30 b(.)-260 1948 y([2])75 b(FreeNet,)26 b
(\223http://freenet.sourcefo)q(r)o(ge.ne)q(t,)-5 b(\224)30
b(.)-260 2022 y([3])75 b(I.)26 b(Stoica,)j(R.)c(Morris,)j(D.)e(Kar)o
(ger)m(,)i(M.)e(F)-5 b(.)24 b(Kaashoek,)30 b(and)c(H.)f(Balakrishnan,)
-108 2095 y(\223Chord:)g(A)18 b(scalable)i(peer)o(-to-peer)h(lookup)e
(service)h(for)e(internet)j(applications,)-5 b(\224)-108
2168 y(in)18 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)g(of)g(SIGCOMM)f(2001)p
Fq(,)g(Aug.)g(2001.)-260 2242 y([4])75 b(S.)18 b(Ratnasamy)l(,)i(P)-7
b(.)17 b(Francis,)j(M.)e(Handle)o(y)l(,)i(R.)e(Karp,)h(and)g(S.)e
(Shenk)o(er)m(,)31 b(\223)-5 b(A)19 b(Scal-)-108 2315
y(able)g(Content-Addressable)j(Netw)o(ork,)-5 b(\224)28
b(in)18 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)h(of)e(SIGCOMM)i(2001)p Fq(,)-108
2388 y(Aug.)e(2001.)-260 2462 y([5])75 b(A.)25 b(Ro)n(wstron)i(and)e(P)
-7 b(.)25 b(Druschel,)54 b(\223P)o(astry:)39 b(Scalable,)30
b(distrib)o(uted)e(object)f(lo-)-108 2535 y(cation)33
b(and)f(routing)g(for)g(lar)o(ge-scale)i(peer)o(-to-peer)g(systems,)-5
b(\224)73 b(a)o(v)n(ailable)34 b(at)-108 2608 y
(http://research.microsoft.c)q(om/)23 b(antr/P)-6 b(AST/,)17
b(2001.)-260 2682 y([6])75 b(J.)28 b(K)o(ubiato)n(wicz)k(et)e(al.,)65
b(\223Oceanstore:)48 b(An)28 b(Architecture)33 b(for)28
b(Global-scale)-108 2755 y(Persistent)c(Storage,)-5 b(\224)44
b(in)22 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)i(of)e(ASPLOS)g(2000)p Fq(,)h(Cambridge,)i
(Mas-)-108 2829 y(sachusetts,)19 b(No)o(v)l(.)d(2000.)-260
2903 y([7])75 b(D.)16 b(Andersen,)i(H.)e(Balakrishnan,)j(F)-5
b(.)16 b(Kaashoek,)i(and)f(R.)g(Morris,)24 b(\223The)17
b(case)h(for)-108 2976 y(resilient)i(o)o(v)o(erlay)f(netw)o(orks,)-5
b(\224)26 b(in)17 b Fs(HotOS)h(VIII)p Fq(,)e(Oberbayern,)i(May)g(2001.)
-260 3050 y([8])75 b(Infrasearch,)27 b(\223http://www)l
(.infrasearch.com,)-5 b(\224)29 b(.)-260 3124 y([9])75
b(Y)-9 b(.)25 b(Chu,)h(S.)e(Rao,)j(and)e(H.)f(Zhang,)51
b(\223)-5 b(A)24 b(case)i(for)f(end)g(system)g(multicast,)-5
b(\224)53 b(in)-108 3197 y Fs(SIGMETRICS)17 b(2000)p
Fq(,)g(CA,)g(June)g(2000.)-260 3271 y([10])42 b(Inktomi,)25
b(\223http://www)l(.inktomi.com,)-5 b(\224)29 b(.)-260
3345 y([11])42 b(Akamai,)25 b(\223http://www)l(.akamai.com,)-5
b(\224)29 b(.)-260 3419 y([12])42 b(Cisco)18 b(CDN,)24
b(\223http://www)l(.cisco.com/go/cdn,)-5 b(\224)30 b(.)-260
3493 y([13])42 b(Napster)m(,)26 b(\223http://www)l(.napster)l(.com,)-5
b(\224)29 b(.)-260 3567 y([14])42 b(Balachander)20 b(Krishnamurthy)e
(and)f(Jia)g(W)-5 b(ang,)23 b(\223On)16 b(netw)o(ork-a)o(w)o(are)k
(clustering)-108 3640 y(of)h(web)h(clients,)-5 b(\224)40
b(in)22 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)g(of)g(SIGCOMM)f('00)p Fq(,)h(Stockholm,)h
(Sweden,)-108 3713 y(Aug.)17 b(2000.)-260 3787 y([15])42
b(P)o(aul)21 b(Francis,)37 b(\223Y)-7 b(oid:)29 b(Extending)22
b(the)g(internet)h(multicast)f(architecture,)-5 b(\224)41
b(Un-)-108 3860 y(published)32 b(paper)m(,)j(a)o(v)n(ailable)f(at)c
(http://www)l(.aciri.or)o(g/yoid/d)q(ocs/)q(index.html)q(,)-108
3933 y(Apr)l(.)17 b(2000.)-260 4007 y([16])42 b(P)-7
b(.)24 b(Francis)j(et)e(al.,)53 b(\223)-5 b(An)25 b(Architecture)k(for)
c(a)g(Global)i(Internet)g(Host)f(Distance)-108 4080 y(Estimation)d
(Service,)-5 b(\224)43 b(in)22 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)h(IEEE)d(Infocom)j
('99)p Fq(,)f(Ne)n(w)g(Y)-7 b(ork,)22 b(NY)-9 b(,)-108
4153 y(Mar)l(.)18 b(1999.)-260 4227 y([17])42 b(E.Ng)47
b(and)h(H.Zhang,)130 b(\223Predicting)51 b(Internet)f(netw)o(ork)f
(distance)h(with)-108 4301 y(coordiantes-based)21 b(approaches,)-5
b(\224)28 b(Under)17 b(submission,)g(2001.)-260 4375
y([18])42 b(Y)-7 b(an)26 b(Chen)g(and)f(Randy)h(Katz,)53
b(\223On)25 b(the)h(placement)h(of)e(netw)o(ork)i(monitoring)-108
4448 y(sites,)-5 b(\224)26 b(http://www)l(.cs.berk)o(ele)o(y)l(.edu/)c
(yanchen/wnms/,)d(2001.)-260 4522 y([19])42 b(E.)18 b(Ze)o(gura,)i(K.)e
(Calv)o(ert,)k(and)e(S.)e(Bhattacharjee,)36 b(\223Ho)n(w)19
b(to)h(Model)g(an)f(Internet-)-108 4595 y(w)o(ork,)-5
b(\224)25 b(in)18 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)g(IEEE)e(Infocom)i('96)p
Fq(,)f(CA,)f(May)i(1996.)-260 4669 y([20])42 b(M.)23
b(F)o(aloutsos,)i(P)-7 b(.)22 b(F)o(aloutsos,)k(and)d(C.)g(F)o
(aloutsos,)46 b(\223On)23 b(Po)n(wer)o(-la)o(w)i(Relation-)-108
4742 y(ships)20 b(of)f(the)g(Internet)j(T)-5 b(opology)l(,)g(\224)32
b(in)19 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)i(of)e(SIGCOMM)h('99)p Fq(,)g(Cam-)-108
4815 y(bridge,)e(MA,)e(Sept.)i(1999,)f(A)m(CM.)-260 4889
y([21])42 b(H.)15 b(T)-5 b(angmunarunkit,)18 b(R.)d(Go)o(vindan,)j(S.)d
(Jamin,)h(S.)f(Shenk)o(er)m(,)i(and)g(W)-6 b(.)14 b(W)m(illinger)m(,)
-108 4962 y(\223Netw)o(ork)23 b(topologies,)g(po)n(wer)f(la)o(ws)f(and)
g(hierarchy)l(,)-5 b(\224)40 b(T)-5 b(ech.)21 b(Rep.)g(TR01-746,)-108
5035 y(T)-5 b(echnical)20 b(Report,)e(Uni)n(v)o(ersity)i(of)c(Southern)
j(California,)g(2001.)-260 5109 y([22])42 b(W)-6 b(.)25
b(Aiello,)k(F)-5 b(.)25 b(Chung,)j(and)f(L.)d(Lu,)54
b(\223)-5 b(A)25 b(random)i(graph)f(model)h(for)f(massi)n(v)o(e)-108
5182 y(graphs,)-5 b(\224)20 b(in)15 b Fs(32nd)f(Annual)h(A)n(CM)f
(Symposium)h(on)f(Theory)h(of)f(Computing)p Fq(.)i(A)m(CM,)-108
5255 y(2000.)-260 5329 y([23])42 b(T)-5 b(.)22 b(Hansen,)i(J.)e(Otero,)
j(T)-5 b(.)21 b(McGre)o(gor)m(,)26 b(and)d(H.)f(Braun,)44
b(\223)-5 b(Acti)n(v)o(e)25 b(measurement)-108 5402 y(data)19
b(analysis)f(techniques,)-5 b(\224)20 b(htpp://amp.nlanr)l(.net.)-260
5476 y([24])42 b(Sugih)22 b(Jamin,)g(Cheng)g(Jin,)g(Y)l(ixin)g(Jin,)g
(Dann)o(y)g(Raz,)g(Y)-7 b(uv)n(al)22 b(Sha)o(vitt,)h(and)f(Lixia)-108
5549 y(Zhang,)42 b(\223On)22 b(the)h(placement)i(of)d(internet)i
(instrumentation,)-5 b(\224)46 b(in)22 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)-108
5622 y(IEEE)16 b(Infocom)i('00)p Fq(,)f(T)-5 b(el)17
b(A)-5 b(vi)n(v)l(,)17 b(Israel,)h(Mar)l(.)f(2000.)1950
-46 y([25])42 b(B.)26 b(Zhao,)i(J.)d(K)o(ubiato)n(wicz,)32
b(and)26 b(A.)g(Joseph,)55 b(\223T)-5 b(apestry:)41 b(An)26
b(infrastructure)2102 27 y(for)17 b(f)o(ault-tolerant)22
b(wide-area)e(location)f(and)f(routing,)-5 b(\224)26
b(UCB)18 b(T)-5 b(echnical)20 b(Report,)2102 100 y(2001.)1950
173 y([26])42 b(Anton)o(y)18 b(Ro)n(wstron)h(and)f(Peter)g(Druschel,)26
b(\223Storage)19 b(management)h(and)d(caching)2102 246
y(in)f(P)-6 b(AST,)15 b(a)h(lar)o(ge-scale,)j(persistent)f(peer)o
(-to-peer)g(storage)g(utility)l(,)-5 b(\224)24 b(in)17
b Fs(Pr)m(oceed-)2102 319 y(ings)g(of)h(the)g(Eighteenth)h(SOSP)p
Fq(.)d(A)m(CM,)h(2001.)1950 392 y([27])42 b(Y)-9 b(.)15
b(Chu,)g(S.)f(Rao,)h(S.)f(Seshan,)i(and)f(H.)f(Zhang,)20
b(\223Enabling)d(conferencing)h(applica-)2102 465 y(tions)h(on)f(the)h
(internet)i(using)d(an)h(o)o(v)o(erlay)g(multicast)i(architecture,)-5
b(\224)32 b(in)19 b Fs(Pr)m(oceed-)2102 538 y(ings)e(of)h(SIGCOMM)g
(2001)p Fq(,)f(Aug.)f(2001.)1950 611 y([28])42 b(Y)-9
b(.)32 b(Cha)o(w)o(athe,)37 b(S.)31 b(McCanne,)37 b(and)32
b(E.)f(Bre)n(wer)m(,)77 b(\223)-5 b(An)31 b(architecture)36
b(for)c(in-)2102 684 y(ternet)k(content)g(distrib)o(ution)h(as)d(an)h
(infrastructure)i(service,)-5 b(\224)86 b(a)o(v)n(ailable)37
b(at)2102 757 y(http://www)l(.cs.berk)o(ele)o(y)l(.edu/)22
b(yatin/papers,)e(2000.)1950 830 y([29])42 b(M.R.Garre)o(y)20
b(and)h(D.S.Johnson,)33 b Fs(Computer)o(s)21 b(and)f(Intr)o
(actability:)31 b(A)19 b(Guide)h(to)2102 903 y(the)i(Theory)g(of)f
(NP-completeness)p Fq(,)40 b(W)-6 b(.H.Freeman)21 b(and)h(Compan)o(y)l
(,)g(San)f(Fran-)2102 976 y(cisco,)d(CA,)e(1979.)1950
1049 y([30])42 b(S.)24 b(Hotz,)50 b(\223Routing)26 b(information)h(or)o
(ganization)g(to)e(support)g(scalable)i(routing)2102
1122 y(with)g(heterogeneous)i(path)e(requirements,)-5
b(\224)57 b(T)-5 b(ech.)26 b(Rep.)g(PhD)g(thesis)h(\(draft\),)2102
1196 y(Uni)n(v)o(ersity)20 b(of)c(Southern)j(California,)g(1994.)1950
1269 y([31])42 b(James)22 b(Guyton)g(and)g(Michael)h(Schw)o(artz,)42
b(\223Locating)23 b(nearby)g(copies)g(of)e(repli-)2102
1342 y(cated)j(internet)h(serv)o(ers,)-5 b(\224)42 b(in)23
b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)g(of)g(SIGCOMM)g('95)p Fq(,)g(Boston,)g(MA,)2102
1415 y(Sept.)17 b(1995,)h(A)m(CM.)1950 1488 y([32])42
b(V)-9 b(.N.P)o(admanabhan)24 b(and)f(L.Subramanian,)45
b(\223)-5 b(An)22 b(in)m(v)o(estigation)k(of)d(geographic)2102
1561 y(mapping)28 b(techniques)i(for)e(internet)i(hosts,)-5
b(\224)60 b(in)27 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)i(of)f(SIGCOMM)2102
1634 y(2001)p Fq(,)17 b(Aug.)g(2001.)1950 1707 y([33])42
b(Z.)15 b(Fei,)i(S.Bhattacharjee,)k(E.)15 b(Ze)o(gura,)i(and)g(M.)e
(Ammar)m(,)23 b(\223)-5 b(A)16 b(no)o(v)o(el)i(serv)o(er)f(selec-)2102
1780 y(tion)h(technique)h(for)e(impro)o(ving)h(the)g(response)f(time)h
(of)e(a)h(replicated)j(service,)-5 b(\224)26 b(in)2102
1853 y Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)19 b(IEEE)c(Infocom)k('98)p
Fq(,)d(San)h(Francisco,)i(CA,)d(Mar)l(.)i(1998.)1950
1926 y([34])42 b(K.)24 b(Johnson,)i(J.)e(Carr)m(,)i(M.)e(Day)l(,)i(and)
f(F)-5 b(.)23 b(Kaashoek,)52 b(\223The)24 b(measured)i(perfor)o(-)2102
1999 y(mance)15 b(of)e(content)j(distrib)o(ution)g(netw)o(orks,)-5
b(\224)20 b(in)14 b Fs(Pr)m(oceedings)h(of)f(the)g(F)m(ifth)g(WCW)p
Fq(,)2102 2072 y(Lisbon,)j(Portugal,)h(May)f(2000.)p
eop
%%Trailer
end
userdict /end-hook known{end-hook}if
%%EOF