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/* aich.c - an implementation of EMule AICH Algorithm.
 * Description: http://www.amule.org/wiki/index.php/AICH.
 *
 * Copyright: 2008-2012 Aleksey Kravchenko <rhash.admin@gmail.com>
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted,  free of charge,  to any person  obtaining a
 * copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
 * to deal in the Software without restriction,  including without limitation
 * the rights to  use, copy, modify,  merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
 * and/or sell copies  of  the Software,  and to permit  persons  to whom the
 * Software is furnished to do so.
 *
 * This program  is  distributed  in  the  hope  that it will be useful,  but
 * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
 * or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  Use this program  at  your own risk!
 *
 * The AICH Algorithm:
 *
 * Each ed2k chunk (9728000 bytes) is divided into 53 parts (52x 180KB and
 * 1x 140KB) and each of these parts are hashed using the SHA1 algorithm.
 * Each of these hashes is called a Block Hash. By combining pairs of Block
 * Hashes (i.e. each part with the part next to it) algorithm will get a whole
 * tree of hashes (this tree which is therefore a hashset made of all of the
 * other Block Hashes is called the AICH Hashset). Each hash which is neither
 * a Block Hash nor the Root Hash, is a Verifying Hash. The hash at the top
 * level is the Root Hash and it is supposed to be provided by the ed2k link
 * when releasing.
 */

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include "byte_order.h"
#include "algorithms.h"
#include "aich.h"

#define ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE  9728000
#define FULL_BLOCK_SIZE  184320
#define LAST_BLOCK_SIZE  143360
#define BLOCKS_PER_CHUNK 53

/*
 * The Algorithm could be a little faster if it knows a
 * hashed message size beforehand. This would allow
 * to build balanced tree while hashing the message.
 *
 * But this AICH implementation works with unknown
 * message size like other well-known hash algorithms
 * (it was fun to write a such one).
 * So, it just stores sha1 hashes and builds balanced tree
 * only on the last step, when the full message processed
 * and its size is already known.
 */

#ifdef USE_OPENSSL
#define SHA1_INIT(ctx) ((pinit_t)ctx->sha_init)(&ctx->sha1_context)
#define SHA1_UPDATE(ctx, msg, size) ((pupdate_t)ctx->sha_update)(&ctx->sha1_context, (msg), (size))
#define SHA1_FINAL(ctx, result) ((pfinal_t)ctx->sha_final)(&ctx->sha1_context, (result))
#else
#define SHA1_INIT(ctx) rhash_sha1_init(&ctx->sha1_context)
#define SHA1_UPDATE(ctx, msg, size) rhash_sha1_update(&ctx->sha1_context, (msg), (size))
#define SHA1_FINAL(ctx, result) rhash_sha1_final(&ctx->sha1_context, (result))
#endif

/**
 * Initialize algorithm context before calculaing hash.
 *
 * @param ctx context to initialize
 */
void rhash_aich_init(aich_ctx *ctx)
{
	memset(ctx, 0, sizeof(aich_ctx));

#ifdef USE_OPENSSL
	{
		rhash_hash_info *sha1_info = &rhash_info_table[3];
		assert(sha1_info->info->hash_id == RHASH_SHA1);
		assert(sha1_info->context_size <= (sizeof(sha1_ctx) + sizeof(unsigned long)));
		ctx->sha_init = sha1_info->init;
		ctx->sha_update = sha1_info->update;
		ctx->sha_final = sha1_info->final;
	}
#endif

	SHA1_INIT(ctx);
}

/* define macrosses to access chunk table */
#define CT_BITS 8
#define CT_GROUP_SIZE (1 << CT_BITS)
typedef unsigned char hash_pair_t[2][sha1_hash_size];
typedef hash_pair_t hash_pairs_group_t[CT_GROUP_SIZE];

#define CT_INDEX(chunk_num) ((chunk_num) & (CT_GROUP_SIZE - 1))
#define GET_HASH_PAIR(ctx, chunk_num) \
	(((hash_pair_t*)(ctx->chunk_table[chunk_num >> CT_BITS]))[CT_INDEX(chunk_num)])

/**
 * Resize the table if needed to ensure it contains space for given chunk_num.
 * and allocate hash_pairs_group_t element at this index.
 *
 * @param ctx algorithm context
 * @param chunk_num the number of chunks required
 */
static void rhash_aich_chunk_table_extend(aich_ctx* ctx, unsigned chunk_num)
{
	unsigned index = (chunk_num >> CT_BITS);
	assert(sizeof(hash_pair_t) == 40);
	assert(sizeof(hash_pairs_group_t) == (40 * CT_GROUP_SIZE)); /* 10KiB */
	assert(CT_GROUP_SIZE == 256);
	assert(CT_INDEX(chunk_num) == 0);

	/* check main assumptions */
	assert(ctx->chunk_table == 0 || ctx->chunk_table[index - 1] != 0); /* table is empty or full */
	assert(index <= ctx->allocated);

	/* check if there is enough space allocated */
	if (index >= ctx->allocated) {
		/* resize the table by allocating some extra space */
		size_t new_size = (ctx->allocated == 0 ? 64 : ctx->allocated * 2);
		assert(index == ctx->allocated);

		/* re-allocate the chunk table to contain new_size void*-pointers */
		ctx->chunk_table = (void**)realloc(ctx->chunk_table, new_size * sizeof(void*));
		if (ctx->chunk_table == 0) {
			ctx->error = 1;
			return;
		}

		memset(ctx->chunk_table + ctx->allocated, 0, (new_size - ctx->allocated) * sizeof(void*));
		ctx->allocated = new_size;
	}

	/* add new hash_pairs_group_t block to the table */
	assert(index < ctx->allocated);
	assert(ctx->chunk_table != 0);
	assert(ctx->chunk_table[index] == 0);

	ctx->chunk_table[index] = malloc(sizeof(hash_pairs_group_t));
	if (ctx->chunk_table[index] == 0) ctx->error = 1;
}

/**
 * Free dynamically allocated memory for internal structures
 * used by hashing algorithm.
 *
 * @param ctx AICH algorithm context to cleanup
 */
void rhash_aich_cleanup(aich_ctx* ctx)
{
	size_t i;
	size_t table_size = (ctx->chunks_number + CT_GROUP_SIZE - 1) / CT_GROUP_SIZE;

	if (ctx->chunk_table != 0) {
		assert(table_size <= ctx->allocated);
		assert(table_size == ctx->allocated || ctx->chunk_table[table_size] == 0);
		for (i = 0;  i < table_size; i++) free(ctx->chunk_table[i]);
		free(ctx->chunk_table);
		ctx->chunk_table = 0;
	}

	free(ctx->block_hashes);
	ctx->block_hashes = 0;
}

#define AICH_HASH_FULL_TREE 0
#define AICH_HASH_LEFT_BRANCH 1
#define AICH_HASH_RIGHT_BRANCH 2

/**
 * Calculate an AICH tree hash, based ether on hashes of 180KB parts
 * (for an ed2k chunk) or on stored ed2k chunks (for the whole tree hash).
 *
 * @param ctx algorithm context
 * @param result pointer to receive calculated tree hash
 * @param type the type of hash to calculate, can be one of constants
 *   AICH_HASH_LEFT_BRANCH, AICH_HASH_RIGHT_BRANCH or AICH_HASH_FULL_TREE.
 */
static void rhash_aich_hash_tree(aich_ctx *ctx, unsigned char* result, int type)
{
	unsigned index = 0; /* leaf index */
	unsigned blocks;
	int      level = 0;
	unsigned is_left_branch = (type == AICH_HASH_RIGHT_BRANCH ? 0x0 : 0x1);
	uint64_t path  = is_left_branch;
	unsigned blocks_stack[56];
	unsigned char sha1_stack[56][sha1_hash_size];

	if (ctx->error) return;
	assert(ctx->index <= ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE);
	assert(type == AICH_HASH_FULL_TREE ? ctx->chunk_table != 0 : ctx->block_hashes != 0);

	/* calculate number of leafs in the tree */
	blocks_stack[0] = blocks = (unsigned)(type == AICH_HASH_FULL_TREE ?
		ctx->chunks_number : (ctx->index + FULL_BLOCK_SIZE - 1) / FULL_BLOCK_SIZE);

	while (1) {
		unsigned char sha1_message[sha1_hash_size];
		unsigned char* leaf_hash;

		/* go into the left branches until a leaf block is reached */
		while (blocks > 1) {
			/* step down into the left branch */
			blocks = (blocks + ((unsigned)path & 0x1)) / 2;
			level++;
			assert(level < 56); /* assumption filesize < (2^56 * 9MiB) */
			blocks_stack[level] = blocks;
			path = (path << 1) | 0x1; /* mark branch as left */
		}

		/* read a leaf hash */
		leaf_hash = &(ctx->block_hashes[index][0]);

		if (type == AICH_HASH_FULL_TREE) {
			is_left_branch = (unsigned)path & 0x1;

			leaf_hash = GET_HASH_PAIR(ctx, index)[is_left_branch];
		}
		index++;

		/* climb up the tree until a left branch is reached */
		for (; level > 0 && (path & 0x01) == 0; path >>= 1) {
			SHA1_INIT(ctx);
			SHA1_UPDATE(ctx, sha1_stack[level], sha1_hash_size);
			SHA1_UPDATE(ctx, leaf_hash, sha1_hash_size);
			SHA1_FINAL(ctx, sha1_message);
			leaf_hash = sha1_message;
			level--;
		}
		memcpy((level > 0 ? sha1_stack[level] : result), leaf_hash, 20);

		if (level == 0) break;

		/* jump at the current level from left to right branch */
		path &= ~0x1; /* mark branch as right */
		is_left_branch = ((unsigned)path >> 1) & 1;

		/* calculate number of blocks at right branch of the current level */
		blocks_stack[level] =
			(blocks_stack[level - 1] + 1 - is_left_branch) / 2;
		blocks = blocks_stack[level];
	}
}

#define AICH_PROCESS_FINAL_BLOCK 1
#define AICH_PROCESS_FLUSH_BLOCK 2

/**
 * Calculate and store a hash for a 180K/140K block.
 * Also, if it is the last block of a 9.2MiB ed2k chunk or of the hashed message,
 * then also calculate the AICH tree-hash of the current ed2k chunk.
 *
 * @param ctx algorithm context
 * @param type the actions to take, can be combination of bits AICH_PROCESS_FINAL_BLOCK
 *             and AICH_PROCESS_FLUSH_BLOCK
 */
static void rhash_aich_process_block(aich_ctx *ctx, int type)
{
	assert(type != 0);
	assert(ctx->index <= ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE);

	/* if there is unprocessed data left in the current 180K block. */
	if ((type & AICH_PROCESS_FLUSH_BLOCK) != 0)
	{
		/* ensure that the block_hashes array is allocated to save the result */
		if (ctx->block_hashes == NULL) {
			ctx->block_hashes = (unsigned char (*)[sha1_hash_size])malloc(BLOCKS_PER_CHUNK * sha1_hash_size);
			if (ctx->block_hashes == NULL) {
				ctx->error = 1;
				return;
			}
		}

		/* store the 180-KiB block hash to the block_hashes array */
		assert(((ctx->index - 1) / FULL_BLOCK_SIZE) < BLOCKS_PER_CHUNK);
		SHA1_FINAL(ctx, ctx->block_hashes[(ctx->index - 1) / FULL_BLOCK_SIZE]);
	}

	/* check, if it's time to calculate the tree hash for the current ed2k chunk */
	if (ctx->index >= ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE || (type & AICH_PROCESS_FINAL_BLOCK)) {
		unsigned char (*pair)[sha1_hash_size];

		/* ensure, that we have the space to store tree hash */
		if (CT_INDEX(ctx->chunks_number) == 0) {
			rhash_aich_chunk_table_extend(ctx, (unsigned)ctx->chunks_number);
			if (ctx->error) return;
		}
		assert(ctx->chunk_table  != 0);
		assert(ctx->block_hashes != 0);

		/* calculate tree hash and save results to chunk_table */
		pair = GET_HASH_PAIR(ctx, ctx->chunks_number);

		/* small optimization: skip a left-branch-hash for the last chunk */
		if (!(type & AICH_PROCESS_FINAL_BLOCK) || ctx->chunks_number == 0) {
			/* calculate a tree hash to be used in left branch */
			rhash_aich_hash_tree(ctx, pair[1], AICH_HASH_LEFT_BRANCH);
		}

		/* small optimization: skip right-branch-hash for the very first chunk */
		if (ctx->chunks_number > 0) {
			/* calculate a tree hash to be used in right branch */
			rhash_aich_hash_tree(ctx, pair[0], AICH_HASH_RIGHT_BRANCH);
		}

		ctx->index = 0; /* mark that the whole ed2k chunk was processed */
		ctx->chunks_number++;
	}
}

/**
 * Calculate message hash.
 * Can be called repeatedly with chunks of the message to be hashed.
 *
 * @param ctx the algorithm context containing current hashing state
 * @param msg message chunk
 * @param size length of the message chunk
 */
void rhash_aich_update(aich_ctx *ctx, const unsigned char* msg, size_t size)
{
	if (ctx->error) return;

	while (size > 0) {
		unsigned left_in_chunk = ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE - ctx->index;
		unsigned block_left = (left_in_chunk <= LAST_BLOCK_SIZE ? left_in_chunk :
			FULL_BLOCK_SIZE - ctx->index % FULL_BLOCK_SIZE);
		assert(block_left > 0);

		if (size >= block_left) {
			SHA1_UPDATE(ctx, msg, block_left);
			msg  += block_left;
			size -= block_left;
			ctx->index += block_left;

			/* process a 180KiB-blok */
			rhash_aich_process_block(ctx, AICH_PROCESS_FLUSH_BLOCK);
			SHA1_INIT(ctx);
		} else {
			/* add to a leaf block */
			SHA1_UPDATE(ctx, msg, size);
			ctx->index += (unsigned)size;
			break;
		}
	}
	assert(ctx->index < ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE);
}

/**
 * Store calculated hash into the given array.
 *
 * @param ctx the algorithm context containing current hashing state
 * @param result calculated hash in binary form
 */
void rhash_aich_final(aich_ctx *ctx, unsigned char result[20])
{
	uint64_t total_size =
		((uint64_t)ctx->chunks_number * ED2K_CHUNK_SIZE) + ctx->index;
	unsigned char* const hash = (unsigned char*)ctx->sha1_context.hash;

	if (ctx->chunks_number == 0 && ctx->block_hashes == NULL) {
		assert(ctx->index < FULL_BLOCK_SIZE);
#ifdef USE_OPENSSL
		SHA1_FINAL(ctx, hash); /* return just sha1 hash */
#else
		SHA1_FINAL(ctx, 0); /* return just sha1 hash */
#if IS_LITTLE_ENDIAN
		rhash_u32_mem_swap(ctx->sha1_context.hash, 5);
#endif
#endif
		if (result) memcpy(result, hash, sha1_hash_size);
		return;
	}

	/* if there is unprocessed data left in the last 180K block */
	if ((ctx->index % FULL_BLOCK_SIZE) > 0) {
		/* then process the last block */
		rhash_aich_process_block(ctx, ctx->block_hashes != NULL ?
			AICH_PROCESS_FINAL_BLOCK | AICH_PROCESS_FLUSH_BLOCK : AICH_PROCESS_FLUSH_BLOCK);
	}

	/* if processed message was shorter than a ed2k chunk */
	if (ctx->chunks_number == 0) {
		/* then return the aich hash for the first chunk */
		rhash_aich_hash_tree(ctx, hash, AICH_HASH_LEFT_BRANCH);
	} else {
		if (ctx->index > 0) {
			/* process the last block of the message */
			rhash_aich_process_block(ctx, AICH_PROCESS_FINAL_BLOCK);
		}
		assert(ctx->chunks_number > 0);
		assert(ctx->block_hashes != NULL);

		rhash_aich_hash_tree(ctx, hash, AICH_HASH_FULL_TREE);
	}

	rhash_aich_cleanup(ctx);
	ctx->sha1_context.length = total_size; /* store total message size  */
	if (result) memcpy(result, hash, sha1_hash_size);
}